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Admiralty Island adult females adult males average bear density Bear Research Beaufort Sea birth black bear populations brown bear populations brown bears carrying capacity Cold Lake commun compensatory Craighead cub mortality cub production cub survival cub survival rate decline density effects DENSITY-DEPENDENT POPULATION REGULATION Derocher and Stirling dispersal dumps equation Garshelis habitat habitat quality harvest mortality high densities home ranges Hudson Bay hypothesis infanticide inter-litter interval intraspecific killing killing cubs Kolenosky LeCount Lindzey logistic maximum sustained yield McLellan McNeil River Miller National Park nonlinear density North America number of adult number of bears nutritional observed pers polar bear populations population density population estimates population growth population numbers predation recruitment reduced REGULATION OF BLACK relationship reproductive rates Resour ringed seals Rogers Schwartz and Franzmann social Stockton Island Stringham study area subadult males suggested sustainable harvest Svalbard Trauba Tuktoyaktuk unhunted unpubl vital rates White Rock yearling weights Yellowstone