Frozen Tombs of Siberia: The Pazyryk Burials of Iron Age Horsemen

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University of California Press, 1970 - Altai Mountains - 340 pages
Sergei Ivanovich Rudenko was a prominent Russian/Soviet anthropologist and archaeologist who discovered and excavated the most celebrated of Scythian burials, Pazyryk in Siberia. During the excavation of Pazyryk tombs, he discovered the world's most spectacular tattooed mummy said to belong to the Pazyryk Culture which flourished between the 7th and 3rd centuries BC. Herodotus and other ancient writers referred to the Altay as "the golden mountain". It was there that the impregnable citadel of the Scythians (or Sacae) lay hidden for centuries. Rudenko, however, was cautious enough not to assign his findings to the Scythians. He attributed the kurgan finds to the formidable Iron Age horsemen and warriors, whom he dubbed the "Pazyryks." Although they left no written records, Pazyryk artifacts are distinguished by a sophisticated level of artistry and craftsmanship. The Pazyryk tombs discovered by Rudenko were in an almost perfect state of preservation. They contained skeletons and intact bodies of horses and embalmed humans, together with a wealth of artifacts including saddles, riding gear, a chariot, rugs, clothing, jewelry, musical instruments, amulets, tools, and an "apparatus for inhaling hemp smoke." Also found in the tombs were fabrics from Persia and China, which the Pazyryks must have obtained on journeys covering thousands of miles.
 

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Contents

Map of Altai Mountain Province showing
1
position of Pazyryk
2
Plan of Pazyryk group of barrows
4
BARROWS OF THE PAZYRYK GROUP
13
Plan of Pazyryk barrow 5
15
Sections of barrows 1 and 2
17
Section of burial shaft in barrow 2 as exca vated and reconstructed
18
Sections of barrow 5 and its burial shaft
20
Saddle from barrow 2
132
Method of securing the breaststraps in barrow 5
133
Method used in barrow 5 of attaching the breaststrap to girthstrap
134
Method of securing the crupperstraps in barrow 5
135
End of lower girthstrap
136
from barrows 1 2 and 3
144
Leather cutouts decorating crupperstraps from barrow 1
145
Bridle and crest decorations in cutout leather from barrow 3
183

Sections of barrows 3 and 4
25
Plan of tomb at Aragol barrow 1
27
Cutout leather cocks from barrow 1
30
Cutout leather deer from barrow 2
31
Lions head on wallhanging in barrow 1
32
Disposition of the finds on the surface of the ice of the first phase in barrow 2
34
Disposition of the objects on the floor of
36
chamber of barrow 2
37
Plan of burial shaft in barrow 5 and disposi tion of objects within it
38
Disposition of horse bodies in barrows
40
the north part of the burial shaft in barrow 5
43
PHYSICAL TYPE OF THE POPULATION
45
from barrow
47
Aragol and barrow 8 at Pazyryk 103
48
ECONOMY AND WAY OF LIFE
55
Little table from barrow 3
67
Part of a stoolcover or pillowcase showing applied leather work from barrow 2
69
Corner of a felt coverlet with a ringstand from barrow 2
70
Cutout leather cocks decorating a bottle in barrow 2
72
Leather bag from barrow 2
75
Stamped copper birds from barrow 2
76
Ornament on leather purse in barrow 2
77
Spatulate object of wood from barrow 3
78
CLOTHING AND PERSONAL ADORNMENT
83
Leather cover from barrow 2
84
Mans felt stockings from barrow 2
90
Sleeve of womans costume from barrow 2
91
357 Detail of ornament on apron from barrow
92
Ornament on uppers of womans bootee from barrow 2
96
Ornament on womans bootee from barrow
97
40 41 Womans stockings from barrow 2
98
Decoration of cocks on a strap in barrow 2
100
Copper pendant from barrow 2
101
near Biysk
105
Gold earring from barrow 2
106
Reconstruction of torque from barrow 2
107
5152 Tattooing on the man in barrow 2
109
Tattooing on the right arm of the man in barrow 2
111
Mirror from barrow 6
115
MEANS OF LOCOMOTION
117
Ownership marks on ears of horses from barrows 1 and 5
118
Bridle from barrow 3
121
Bridle from barrow 5
122
Method of securing sidestrap and noseband 124 146 75 Leather bridle decorations from barrow 2
124
A bridle frontal plate from barrow 5
126
Wooden bridle fork from barrow 3
127
Bridle from barrow 3
128
Saddle from barrow 5
130
Leather cutout decorations of bridle in barrow 3
184
Decoration on horses tailsheaths in barrow
186
Whip handle from barrow 4
187
TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED IN WORKING THE DIFFERENT
195
Traces of chopping on the ends of logs
196
Iron knife with wooden sheath from barrow
198
Pattern of weave in a textile
203
Arrangement of threads in the cloth
204
The weave in Palas type of cloth 105 Weave with one warp and two weft threads 205 203 204
205
SOME EVIDENCE ABOUT THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE
211
Dagger from Aragol barrow
219
Shield from barrow 3
220
ART
229
Decoration on 109 Decoration on 110 Decoration on 111 Decoration on 112 Decoration on 113 Decoration on saddle saddle saddle saddle saddle sa...
230
cover from barrow 1
231
Lion decorating a saddlecover in barrow 1
235
cover from barrow 1
236
A lions head decorating a saddlecover from barrow 1
237
Figurine of a wild boar
241
Schematic representation of a griiiin decorating a breaststrap in barrow 1
244
A lotus flower from barrow 2
245
Fish tattooed on right leg of man in barrow 2
247
Cocks on manecovers from barrow 1
248
Mountain ram tattooed on right arm of man in barrow 2
251
Donkey tattooed on right arm of man in barrow 2
253
Feline head from barrow 2
255
1268 Monsters tattooed on man in barrow 2
260
man in barrow 2
262
1301 Fantastic monsters tattooed on arms of man in barrow 2
263
man in barrow 2
264
Fantastic monster tattooed on left arm of man in barrow 2
265
man in barrow 2
266
Examples of predators springing on ungulates
267
Artistic carving on side and lid of log coflin from BashAdar barrow 2 268
268
Carving of deer and leather cutout of tiger with antlers from Tuekta barrows 2 and 1
270
Onesided horn drum from barrow 2
278
RELIGIOUS BELIEFS AND RITUALS
279
THE DATING AND CULTURALHISTORICAL PLACE OF
293
Cloth decorated with a design of women standing in front of a censer in an attitude of prayer from barrow 5
297
Cloth decorated with design of procession of lions from barrow 5
298
A fourrayed star used to decorate the pile carpet from barrow 5
299
Griiiin used to decorate the pile carpet from barrow 5
300
Deer decorating the pile carpet from barrow 5 301 144 Stars decorating the pile carpet from barrow 5 301 145 Rider decorating the pile carpet from ...
301
Carpet knots
303
Inventory of Articles Found in the Pazyryk Barrows
311
Principal works referred to and Further Reading
329
Plates 1180
335
Copyright

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