Radioactive waste forms for the future
This volume presents a compilation of important information on the full range of radioactive waste forms that have been developed, or at least suggested, for the incorporation of high-level nuclear waste. Many of the results were published in the ``gray literature'' of final reports of national laboratories or in various, generally less available, proceedings volumes. This is the first publication to draw information on nuclear waste forms for high-level wastes together into a single volume. Although borosilicate glass has become the standard waste form, additional research in this compound is still necessary. With improved technology (particularly processing technologies) and with a more detailed knowledge of repository conditions, glasses and second generation waste forms with improved performance properties can be developed. Sustained research programs on nuclear waste form development will yield results that can only add to public confidence and the final, safe disposal of nuclear waste. The aim of this volume is to provide a `spring board' for these future research efforts. A detailed presentation is given on the properties and performance of non-crystalline waste forms (borosilicate glass, sintered glass, and lead-iron phosphate glass), and crystalline waste forms (Synroc, tailored ceramics, TiO 2 - ceramic matrix, glass-ceramics and FUETAP concrete). A chapter on Novel Waste Forms reviews a number of methods that warrant further development because of their potential superior performance and unique applications. The final chapter includes a tabulated comparison of important waste form properties and an extended discussion on the corrosion process and radiation damage effects for each waste form. Of particular interest is a performance assessment of nuclear waste borosilicate glass and the crystalline ceramic Synroc. This is the first detailed attempt to compare these two important waste forms on the basis of their materials properties. The discussion emphasizes the difficulties in making such a comparison and details the types of data that are required. Each chapter has been written by an expert and includes a current compilation of waste form properties with an extensive list of references. This volume will provide a stimulus for future research as well as useful reference material for scientists working in the field of nuclear waste disposal and materials science.
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PART F NONCRYSTALLINE WASTE FORMS
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actinide alpha-decay Basis for Nuclear borosilicate glass borosilicate nuclear waste calcination canister chemical durability concentration containing cooling corrosion corrosion rate crystalline phases crystallization defense waste density dose effect elements energy fission products flow rate formation fracture FUETAP glass compositions glass frit glass phase glass-ceramics Grambow groundwater heating high-level waste HLSW HLW glass hollandite hot-pressing IAEA increase ions irradiation Jantzen Laboratory lanthanide leach rates leachant lead-iron phosphate glass Lutze Malow materials matrix measured melter melting metal metamict minerals monazite nepheline North-Holland Nucl nuclear waste forms nuclear waste glasses Nuclear Waste Management orthophosphate oxides particles perovskite powder properties pyrochlore R.C. Ewing radiation damage Radioactive Wastes radionuclides reaction redox release Report reprocessing Ringwood rutile samples saturation Schiewer Scientific Basis silica simulated HLW sintering solid solubility solution sphene structure surface area Synroc tailored ceramic temperature tests thermal uraninite vitrification waste loading zirconolite