Tool Making: A Practical Treatise on the Art of Making Tools, Jigs, and Fixtures, with Helpful Suggestions on Heat Treatment of Carbon and High-speed Steels for Tools, Punches, and Dies

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American technical society, 1919 - Machine-tools - 288 pages
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Page 303 - This textbook may be borrowed for two weeks, with the privilege of renewing it once. A fine of five cents a day is incurred by failure to return a book on the date when it is due. The Education Library is open from 9 to 5 daily except Saturday when it closes at 12.30.
Page 15 - Long pieces which spring when annealed should not be straightened when cold, if they are to be hardened. HARDENING. Tool steel may be hardened by heating to a low red heat and plunging in some cooling medium, as water, brine or oil. Heating. A piece of steel should never be heated any hotter than is necessary to give the desired result. The heat necessary varies with the make of the steel, the amount of carbon it contains, the size and shape of the piece, and the purpose for which it is to be used.
Page 41 - Fig. 80, shows where the cutting commences, and its increase until it reaches a maximum depth at c, where it may be increased or diminished, according to the angle employed in the operation, the line of cutter action being represented by it.
Page 19 - The heat necessary varies with the make of the steel, the amount of carbon it contains, the size and shape of the piece, and the purpose for which it is to be used. Much depends on heating uniformly; a piece of steel should be given a uniform heat throughout, the edges and corners should be no hotter than the center, and the interior should be of the same temperature as the surface. If not, the piece is likely to crack in the cooling bath, on account of the uneven changes which take place in the...
Page 21 - Fig. 11. red heat and dipped in this solution harden more uniformly than when immersed in clear water. Pack Hardening gives excellent results with pieces that cannot be hardened by the methods ordinarily employed without risk of springing or cracking. The article is packed in an iron box with some carbonaceous material, and subjected to the action of heat to allow it to absorb enough carbon to harden in oil. While this method is not generally used, it is very valuable when hardening such pieces as...
Page 15 - ... steel hot for a long time. Another common method of annealing tool steel is to heat the piece to a red heat and bury it in ashes or lime. This is likely to give unsatisfactory results unless the ashes or lime are also heated. This can be accomplished by first heating a large piece of iron and burying in the contents of the annealing box. When the steel to be annealed is sufficiently heated the piece of iron may be removed and the piece to be annealed put in its place and thoroughly buried in...
Page 41 - ... the mixture formed has the consistency of ordinary varnish. After the drill has been dipped in the mixture it should be laid in a warm place to dry ; when thoroughly dried the drill may Fig. 29. Fig. 30. be heated in a tube, or preferably in a crucible of red-hot lead until it is a low red, when it may be plunged in a bath of lukewarm water, or brine ; small drills may be dipped in a bath of oil. The drill must not be put in red-hot lead until the coating is thoroughly...
Page 132 - Fig. 171 shows a cutter in position for grinding the teeth; it will readily be seen that the tooth being ground rests on the finger or tooth rest; this finger may be adjusted to give any desired amount of clearance to the tooth. For grinding the teeth on the side of a milling cutter, a small emery wheel may be used in order to get the necessary amount ^ of clearance without touching the tooth next to the one being ground. If a grinder is used which will take a cup wheel as shown in Fig. 172, and...
Page 67 - There are several forms of expanding mandrels in common use. One form has a sleeve with a taper hole, fitting on a mandrel with a corresponding taper; the sleeve is split Fig.
Page 123 - ... when it has but one cutting edge. It is not necessary to stop the screw machine nearly as long to grind both cutting edges, as to stop the machine twice to grind the same edge on account of the time necessary to rig up the grinder. When hardening, the tool should be heated to a low red and plunged in a bath of water or brine from which the chill has been removed ; it should be worked around well in the bath. If the temper is not to be drawn after hardening, the tool may be held over the fire...

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