Italo-Turkish Diplomacy and the War Over Libya: 1911-1912
In 1911 Italy, an aspiring Great Power, attacked Ottoman Libya. Italian diplomacy had long anticipated this attack, but Italy's military was ill-prepared for it. The Ottoman Empire, distracted by internal dissension and by the expansionist designs of its Balkan neighbours, was woefully unready. This study examines how the belligerents dealt with the military and diplomatic stalemates into which the Libyan War degenerated, stalemates which were ended only by the outbreak of the First Balkan War in 1912, when the Ottomans were obliged to make peace with Italy to face more dangerous enemies nearer home. The Italo-Turkish War was the first armed clash between the lesser Great Powers immediately before 1914, leading inexorably to the deterioration of the Balkan situation and to Sarajevo. This is the first study based on the archives of the Ottoman Foreign Ministry for the period, as well as on better-known Italian sources.
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To be Malthusian is vile
Italy goes to war
Military and diplomatic developments through Italys
The diplomatic stalemate
The Sazonov mediation attempts
Ottoman problems in Libya Italian moves into Aegean
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26 September ACS/CG action Aegean islands agreed agreement Albania Albertini annexation Arab Article Asim Bey August Austria Balkan Berlin Bey to Asim Beys to Gabriel Bosworth Commissioners to Giolitti concessions Cyrenaica Dardanelles demarche diplomatic Dodecanese Empire's England European evacuation evket Pasa Fahrettin Beys February Foreign Minister France Gabriel Efendi German Grand Vezir Guerra Libica hereinafter referred hostilities Ibid Imperial Istanbul Italian Commissioners Italo-Turkish Italy Italy's July June Libya London Malgeri Maltese mediation military Montenegro Muslim Nabi and Fahrettin negotiators Neratov neutral Powers Nizami Pasa Nogara North Africa November occupation October Ottoman Ambassador Ottoman Empire Ottoman Government Ouchy Paris Pasa to Asim peace proposal provinces Re§it reported Rifat Pasa Rome Russia Saint Petersburg Sait Halim Sait Pasa San Giuliano Sazonov September 1912 sovereignty Sublime Porte Sultan Terra Promessa Tevfik Pasa tion Tittoni toman treaty Triple Alliance Tripoli Tripolitania Tripolitania and Cyrenaica troops Turhan Pasa Turkey Turkish Vienna
Page 254 - Government pledges itself to pay annually to the treasury of the public debt for the Imperial Government a sum corresponding to the average of the sums which in each of the three years preceding that of the declaration of war have been assigned to the service of the public debt under the revenues of the two provinces.
Page 254 - ... the supply of such monopoly goods to be in conformity with the state of the market at the moment of purchase, taking into consideration the qualities of the goods to be supplied and the average price ruling during the three years preceding that in which war was declared for similar qualities. Should Turkey, instead of establishing new monopolies on the five articles mentioned above, decide to levy consumption surtaxes on them, such surtaxes are to be imposed in the same degree on the similar...