The American fruit culturist: containing directions for the propagation and culture of fruit trees, in the nursery, orchard, and garden, with descriptions of the principal American and foreign varieties, cultivated in the United States
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acid apex apple apricot bark basin shallow basin small becoming Beurre Bigarreau Black bloom branches brown buds calyx small cherry color conical crisp crop cultivation dark dium dots downy dull Early winter flattened flavor flesh firm flesh juicy flesh white flesh yellow fruit Gage graft greenish yellow growth half long heart-shaped high-flavored inch long insect Lady Apple Late autumn leaves light manure melting mid-autumn moderately Muscadine narrow Newtown Pippin oblate obovate obtuse orange Origin oval pale yellow peach pear Pippin pistillate planted plum productive pruning purple pyriform quince red cheek reddish ribbed rich Ripens roots round roundish roundish-oval russet scarcely sunk Season medium second-rate Section Seedling Size medium skin slender slightly sunk soil sometimes stalk an inch stalk half stalk short stalk three-fourths stone stout striped sub-acid surface suture sweet thick thin third rate third-rate tivated trees varieties vigorous yellow ground yellowish green
Page 55 - In these latter cases, the food absorbed from the earth by the root of the stock is communicated slowly and unwillingly to the scion ; under no circumstances is the communication between the one and the other as free and perfect as if their natures had been more nearly the same ; the sap is impeded in its ascent, and the proper juices are impeded in their descent, whence arises that accumulation of secretion which is sure to be attended by increased fertility.
Page 55 - In proportion as the scion and the stock approach each other closely in constitution, the less effect is oroduced by the latter; and, on the contrary, in proportion to the constitutional difference between the stock and the scion, is the effect of the former important. Thus, when pears are grafted or budded on the wild species, apples upon crabs, plums upon plums, and peaches upon peaches or almonds, the scion is, in regard to fertility, exactly in the same state as if it had not been grafted at;...
Page 392 - of all that can be said in grape culture respecting soil, is that it be dry and light. deep and rich." A dry bottom is highly essential; hence a bed of stones, shells and bones, eighteen inches beneath the surface, has been very useful. The manure must be in some degree adapted to the nature of the soil, but generally, vegetable mould or muck, with a portion of ashes intermixed , is one of the very best. PRUNING AND TRAINING. A well pruned vine will not only produce earlier fruit, but it will be...
Page 395 - During the time when the vines are in blossom, and while the fruit is setting, all sprinkling or syringing over the leaves must be suspended, and the house should be kept a little more closed and warm than usual, and should any indications of mildew appear on any of the branches, it may at once be checked by dusting them with flour of sulphur.
Page 318 - On shaking it well, I caught five curculios , on jarring it with the hand, I caught twelve more ; and on striking the tree with a stone, eight more dropped on the sheets. I was now convinced that I had been in an error ; and calling in the necessary assistance, and using a hammer to jar the tree violently, we caught in less than an hour, more than two hundred and sixty of these insects.
Page 322 - Prunes, says Liegel, have become an important article of commerce. In order to have them fair and glossy, they must be suddenly cooled, when withdrawn from the oven. "The country people in this part of Germany, prepare their prunes by putting them into their bread ovens. I have put up, for my own use, a very conveniently arranged drying apparatus, which, after the experience of many years, I am induced to recommend ; and for the construction of which I give the annexed...
Page 383 - After the crop is over, dig and prepare this alley or strip for the occupancy of the new runners for the next season's crop. The runners from the old strip will now speedily cover the new space allotted to them, and will perhaps require a partial thinning out to have them evenly distributed. As soon as this is the case, say about the middle of August, dig under the whole of the old plants with a light coat of manure. The surface may be then sown with turnips or spinach, which will come off before...
Page 43 - A bandage of bass, corn-husk, or other substance, is wrapped round, covering all parts but the bud. The pressure should be just sufficient to keep the inserted portion closely to the stock, but not such as to bruise or crush the bark, fig.
Page 383 - Early in April, or in August, being provided with a good stock of strong young plants, select a suitable piece of good deep soil. Dig in a heavy coat of stable manure, pulverizing well and raking the top soil. Strike out the rows, three feet apart, with a line. The plants should now be planted along each line about a foot apart in the row. They will soon send out runners, and these runners should be allowed to take possession of every alternate strip of three feet — the other strip being kept bare...
Page 15 - ... bushel, and the best early peaches from one to three dollars. An acquaintance received eight dollars for a crop grown on two fine young cherry-trees, and twenty-four dollars from four young peach-trees of only four years' growth from the bud. In Western New York, single trees of the Doyenne or Virgalieu pear have often afforded a return of twenty dollars or more, after being sent hundreds of miles to market. These standard fruits, requiring several years to come into bearing, are too slow for...