An introduction to the theory of optics

Front Cover
E. Arnold, 1904 - Optics, Physical - 340 pages
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Contents

Application of Fouriers theorem
21
Waves travelling along a stretched string
22
Transverse waves in an elastic medium
24
Condensational waves
26
Spherical waves
27
Waves spreading from a disturbed region of finite size
29
The principle of superposition
31
Refraction and reflexion of waves
32
Wave front and wave surface
34
CHAPTER III
35
Intensity
37
Optical length and optical distance
38
Fermats principle and its application
41
The principle of reversibility
43
Polarization
45
Light reflected from transparent substances
47
Total reflexion
50
CHAPTER IV
54
Calculation of the combined effects due to two separate sources
55
Conditions necessary for the experimental illustration of inter ference
57
Youngs experiment
58
Fresnels experiments
59
Subjective method of observing interference bands
60
Observations with white light
61
Difficulty of illustrating simple interference phenomena by experiment
63
Colours of thin films
67
Fringes observed with thick plates
68
Michelsons combination of mirrors
70
Newtons rings
72
Brewsters bands
74
Stationary vibrations
76
Applications
77
Historical
81
THE DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT ART PAOE 46 Huygens principle
84
Laminar zones
88
Preliminary discussion of problems in diffraction
92
Babinets principle
93
Shadows of a straight edge in parallel light
94
Shadows of a straight edge in divergent light
96
Shadow of a narrow lamina
98
Passage of plane waves through a slit
99
Passage of light through a slit General case
102
Passage of light through a circular aperture
103
Shadow of a circular disc
104
Zone plates 10
105
CHAPTER VI
107
Overlapping of spectra
111
Dispersion of gratings
112
Wire gratings
113
Gratings with predominant spectra
114
Echelon gratings
115
Concave gratings
118
v
120
Measurement of wave length
123
Historical
125
CHAPTER VII
128
Image formed by a lens
129
Resolving power of telescopes
131
Resolving power of the eye 73 Rectangular apertures
133
Luminous surfaces
134
Illumination of the image of a luminous surface
136
Brightness of stars
139
ART PAGE 77 Powers of spectroscopes
140
Resolving power of prisms
142
Resolving power of compound prisms
144
Brightness of image in the spectroscope
146
Aberrations
148
The formation of images without reflexion and refraction Pinhole photography
150
CHAPTER VIII
152
The optic axes
155
Uniaxal and biaxal crystals
156
Ray velocity
159
The direction of displacement
162
Shape of the wavesurface
163
The axes of single ray velocity and of single wav c velocity
165
Peculiarity of single wave propagation
166
Peculiarity of a single ray propagation
167
Observations of colour effects with parallel light
182
Observations with light incident at different angles
183
Uniaxal plate cut perpendicularly to the axis
184
Relation between wave velocities
185
Relation between ray velocities
187
AKT PAGK 111 The surface of equal phase difference or isochromatic surface
188
Application of isochromatic surface to the study of polarization effects
190
Isochromatic curves in uniaxal crystals
191
Isochromatic curves in biaxal crystals
193
The achromatic lines in biaxal crystals
194
Measurement of angle between optic axes
195
Dispersion of optic axes
196
The half wavelength plate
197
The quarter wave plate
198
Application of quarter wave plate
200
Babinets compensator
201
PART II
204
Simple elongation
205
Simple shear
206
Components of strain
208
Shearing stress produced by combined tension and pressure at right angles
210
Equations of motion in a disturbed medium
211
Equations of the electromagnetic field
214
Maxwells theory
215
Differential equation for propagation of electric and magnetic disturbances in dielectric media
216
Refraction
217
Direction of electric and magnetic forces at right angles to each other
218
Double refraction
219
Problem of refraction and reflexion
221
Reflexion in the electromagnetic theory
222
ART TAOK 141 Reflexion in the elastic solid theory
225
Lord Kelvins theory of contractile aether
230
Historical
232
CHAPTER XL
236
The laws of refraction in absorbing media
239
Free and forced vibrations
240
Passage of light through a responsive medium
243
General investigation of the effect of a responsive medium
244
J31
245
Wave velocity in a responsive medium according to the electromagnetic theory
246
Dispersion in transparent media
249
Extension of the theory
251
Finite range of free vibrations
253
Absorption
254
Selective refraction
256
Metallic reflexion
258
The optical constants of metals
262
Reflecting powers of metals for waves of low frequency
266
Connexion between refractive index and density
268
Historical
270
CHAPTER XII
272
Analytical representation of the rotation of the plane of polarization
274
Isotropic substances
275
Allogyric double refraction
278
Crystalline media
279
Isochromatic and achromatic lines
280
Photogyration in the magnetic field
287
Connexion between the Zeeman effect and magnetogyration
290
Experimental facts and their connexion with the theory
291
Double refraction at right angles to the lines of force
295
CHAPTER XIII
297
Plane waves of distortion in an elastic medium
301
Waves diverging from a sphere oscillating in an elastic medium
303
Divergent waves of sound
305
Transmission of energy by electromagnetic waves
310
Group velocity
313
THE NATURE OF LIGHT 181 Application of Fouriers theorem Gouys treatment
319
Application of Fouriers integral Lord Rayleighs investi gations
321
White light analysed by grating
323
White light analysed by dispersive media
325
Interference
326
Talbots bands
329
Roentgen radiation
332
The radiation of a black body
333
Dopplers principle
334
133
337
13i
340

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Page 215 - A simple extension in one set of parallels, and a simple contraction of equal amount in any other set perpendicular to those, is the same as a simple shear in either of the two sets of planes cutting the two sets of parallels at 45. And the numerical measure
Page 82 - from the other, by an interval which is equal to the breadth of one, two, three, or more of the supposed undulations, while the intervening dark spaces correspond to a difference of half a supposed undulation, of one and a half, of two and a half, or more.
Page 350 - therefore, throughout the universe, bears impressed on it the stamp of a metric system as distinctly as does the metre of the Archives at Paris, or the double royal cubit of the temple at
Page 179 - The direction of the resultant force is not the same as that of the displacement, the direction cosines of which are x/r and y/r. The cosine of the angle included between the radius vector and the force is found in the usual way to be Rr and the component of the force along the radius vector is
Page 152 - or less, produces no appreciable deterioration in the definition ; so that from this point onwards the lens is useless, as only improving an image already sensibly as perfect as the aperture admits of. Throughout the operation of increasing the focal length, the resolving-power of the instrument,
Page 241 - and which appears to be more especially applicable to problems that relate to the motions of systems composed of an immense number of particles mutually acting upon each other. One of the advantages of this method, of great importance, is, that we are necessarily led by the mere process of the calculation, and with little care on our part, to all the equations and conditions which are
Page 240 - during the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, made
Page 178 - objection, is very instructive, and deserves consideration as presenting in a simple manner some of the essential features of a more complete investigation. Consider a particle P attracted to a centre 0 with a force
Page 218 - negative pressure) parallel to one line and an equal longitudinal positive pressure parallel to any line at right angles to it, is equivalent to a shearing stress of tangential tractions

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