Lamarck, the Founder of Evolution: His Life and Work

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Longmans, Green, and Company, 1901 - Biology - 451 pages
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Page 107 - The ruins of an older world,' said Hutton, ' are visible in the present structure of our planet ; and the strata which now compose our continents have been once beneath the sea, and were formed out of the waste of pre-existing continents. The same forces are still destroying, by chemical decomposition or mechanical violence, even the hardest rocks, and transporting the materials to the sea, * Ed.
Page 435 - ... taken place. They can show that the degrees of difference, so produced, are often, as in dogs, greater than those on which distinctions of species are in other cases founded. They can show that...
Page 443 - Groups having the morphological character of species — distinct and permanent races, in fact — have been so produced over and over again ; but there is no positive evidence, at present, that any group of animals has, by variation and selective breeding, given rise to another group which was, even in the least degree, infertile with the first.
Page 443 - There is no fault to be found with Mr. Darwin's method, then ; but it is another question whether he has fulfilled all the conditions imposed by that method. Is it satisfactorily proved, in fact, that species may be originated by selection ? that there is such a thing as natural selection ? that none of the phenomena exhibited by species are inconsistent with the origin of species in this way ? If these questions can be answered in the affirmative, Mr.
Page 118 - time is nothing. It is never a difficulty, she always has it at her disposal; and it is for her the means by which she has accomplished the greatest as well as the least of her results. For all the evolution of the earth and of living beings, nature needs but three elements — space, time, and...
Page 372 - The hypothesis of Lamarck — that progressive changes in species • have been produced by the attempts of animals to increase the development of their own organs, and thus modify their structure and habits...
Page 443 - After much consideration, and with assuredly no bias against Mr. Darwin's views, it is our clear conviction that, as the evidence stands, it is not absolutely proven that a group of animals, having all the characters exhibited by species in Nature, has ever been originated by selection, whether artificial or natural.
Page 156 - ... disappear, till they are not to be seen at all in the recent strata, still less in the existing seas, in which, indeed, we never discover their corresponding species, and where several even of their genera are not to be found ; that, on the contrary, the shells of the recent strata resemble, as it respects the genus, those which still exist in the sea ; and that in the last formed and loosest of these strata are some species which the eye of the most expert naturalist cannot distinguish...
Page 437 - The environment stands in relation to the individual as the hammer and anvil to the blacksmith's hot iron. The organism suffers during its entire existence a continuous series of mechanical impacts, none the less real because invisible."* These are weighty words.
Page 372 - Neither did the giraffe acquire its long neck by desiring to reach the foliage of the more lofty shrubs, and constantly stretching its neck for the purpose, but because any varieties which occurred among its anti-types with a longer neck than usual at once secured a fresh range of pasture over the same ground as their shorternecked companions, and on the first scarcity of food were thereby enabled to outlive them.

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