Forest primeval: the natural history of an ancient forest
In this unique "biography" of a beautiful forest in Oregon's Cascade Mountains, the author traces the growth of the forest from its birth in 988 to its current glory as an ancient forest. Offers precise yet evocative accounts of the diverse lives and events within the forested portion of the ecosystem.
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In the Beginning
Birth of a Forest
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adults ancient forest animals bark bats become beetles begin big river branches brown burn burrow canopy cavity chickaree creeping vole dark decay deer Douglas-ﬁr earth edge eggs fallen tree feed feet female ﬁfty ﬁnally ﬁnd ﬁr ﬁre ﬁrst ﬁsh ﬁve ﬂight ﬂowers ﬂows ﬂying squirrels forest ﬂoor fungi fungus gophers grasses ground grow habitat hemlock high ridge home range human inches insects killed land larvae living male mammals marbled murrelet mature meadow mice mother mountain beaver nest night Oregon Oregon Country Osborne Russell otters Paciﬁc Northwest pileated woodpeckers plants pumas rain red tree vole rocks roots salamander sapwood seeds shrew-mole snags snow snowshoe snowshoe hare soil species spores spring stream summer surface tail thicket tree vole tree’s trufﬂes trunk vegetation weasel western western hemlock western red-backed vole wind winter wood wood-boring woodpeckers young forest