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Theory of High Resolution Voltage Contrast
Wide Range System Operation
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5V square wave amplitude analyzer grid average vertical kinetic changes collection of secondary constant decrease deflection detector diffusion pump electric fields electron distribution curve emission coefficient estimate expected value experiments extraction field extraction grid false voltage field effects filter voltage grid voltage high resolution voltage hydrocarbon initial energy input square wave input voltage integrated circuit line spacing line widths linear operation mean square error metal lines micrograph micron line multimeter negative neighboring features number of secondary output curve photomultiplier plotted PM output PM vs Vf pole piece primary electron beam range of linear resolution voltage contrast retarding field spectrometer root mean square sample scanning electron microscope scintillator secondary electron current secondary electron distribution secondary electron emission shown in Fig signal silicon dioxide slope specimen feature specimen potential specimen voltage trap and analyzer trap grid vertical kinetic energy Vf curve voltage measurements voltage resolution volts Widths and spacings