## Multidimensional Scaling, Issue 11Outlines a set of techniques that enable a researcher to discuss the "hidden structure" of large data bases. These techniques use proximities, measures which indicate how similar or different objects are, to find a configuration of points which reflects the structure in the data. |

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### Contents

Editors Introduction | 5 |

Interpretation of the Configuration | 30 |

Dimensionality | 48 |

ThreeWay Multidimensional Scaling | 60 |

Preparing the Input for Multidimensional Scaling | 73 |

Notes | 82 |

Other Uses for Lines and the Horseshoe Phenomenon | 88 |

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### Common terms and phrases

analyzed approach Bell Laboratories Bikol characteristics clusters computational procedure computer program corresponds curve data values described desirable dimension weights directions discussed dissimilarities elbow error level Euclidean distances example f-stress factor analysis Figure 5A formula four-dimensional geometric global minimum higher-dimensional imities important indicate INDSCAL analysis INDSCAL model Kruskal KYST and M-D-SCAL linear regression lines local minimum matrix of proximities MDS configuration mean measure method metric scaling Morse code MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING multiple correlation multiple regression neighborhoods nonmetric scaling objective function obtained pair patterns points political alignment possible profile proximities prox proximities data proximity matrix rating scales reasonable root mean square Roskam rotated scatter diagram set of data Shepard shown in Figure signals sion square starting configuration statistical stimuli stress values structure subjects techniques terrain three-way tion TORSCA traits true minimum two-dimensional configuration two-dimensional space two-way MDS value of stress variable versus Wish and Carroll

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Page 86 - Individual differences in perceptions and preferences among nations', pp. 312-328 in CW King and D. Tigert (eds.) Attitude Research Reaches New Heights. Chicago: American Marketing Association.

Page 84 - KELLER, F..S. and TAUBMAN, RE (1943) "Studies in International Morse Code. 2. Errors made in code reception.