Coding the Hypothetical: A Comparative Typology of Russian and Macedonian Conditionals
Conditionals encode speculation. They convey how events could have been different in the past or present, or might be different in the future if particular conditions had been or will be met. While all languages afford the means to speculate or hypothesize about possible events, the ways in which they do so vary. This work explores some of this variation through an analysis of the stucture and semantics of complex conditional sentences in Russian and Macedonian. It addresses typological questions about the general properties of natural language conditionals and examines the role of the grammatical categories tense, aspect, mood and status in the coding of conditional meaning. The book also discusses the relationship between the use of these categories and the shape of a language's conditional system. For example, the use of tense in counterfactual contexts in Macedonian correlates with the grammaticalization of more shades of conditional meaning than are grammaticalized in Russian, which does not employ tense forms in this way. The study draws on data from a rich variety of sources and thus includes kinds of conditionals overlooked in many other studies. The book addresses issues of concern to Slavists and raises questions for those interested in conditionals and the coding of hypothetical meaning.
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On Russian conditionals
Morphosyntactic and semantic features of Russian
Conditional sentences in Macedonian
3 other sections not shown
Academy Grammar analysis aorist apodosis chapter three conditional meaning conditional mood conditional protases conditional sentences conditional systems correlation counterfactual conditions counterfactual meaning ctoby Deti Arbata discussion distinction dokolku Drotvinas encode English esli event example expectative conditionals fact Formanovskaja future non-expectative future tense Golab grammatical categories hypothetical imperative protases indicative infinitival infinitive interpretation irreal Kramer Kubik language lexeme lexical literary Macedonian conditionals Macedonian data markedly modal Minova-Gurkova modal meaning morphological non-exhortative non-expectative conditionals notes Nova Makedonija nuance occur open condition parallel marking particle past iterative past non-expectative past tense forms perfective aspect perfective nonpast perfective past PF students possible potential conditionals potential meaning potential mood pravda principle of parallel protasis real conditionals relevant Russian and Macedonian Russian conditionals second position semantic Slavic Slavic languages speaker structure Sturmin stylistic subjunctive mood subordinate clause suggest symmetrical syntactic temporal tion tional tive type of conditional typology verb verb forms