Democratization and Revolution in the USSR, 1985-1991

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Brookings Institution Press, 1997 - History - 542 pages
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Democratization and Revolution in the USSR, 1985-91 presents a strikingly new view of the Gorbachev era and the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union. Written by one of America's most distinguished specialists on the former Soviet Union, this is the first comprehensive overview of the Gorbachev period and describes it as a real revolution, not mere " reform." According to Hough, despite Mikhail Gorbachev's talk of a regulated market, he never understood that a market must be created on a solid institutional and legal base. He was determined to use democratization to free himself from party control, but he saw democracy as a way of achieving near- universal consensus, not a mechanism for forcing through difficult choices. The many memoirs that have become available in the last few years, including those of Gorbachev himself, show that Premier Nikolai Ryzhkov and the " bureaucrats" in his government actually were the serious economic reformers in the leadership. Gorbachev opposed the key transitional steps at every stage and was far closer to the assumptions of shock therapy than he or his opponents ever recognized. Hough explains that Gorbachev was not alone in thinking that the destruction of old institutions was enough to unleash a market. Westerners also talked of leaping a chasm in a single jump as if democratic and market institutions existed pre-created on the other side. But, precisely because Gorbachev (and later Boris Yeltsin) was encouraged in all his worst mistakes by Western advice, his failure has crucial implications for Western thinking about the process of democratization and marketization. This unprecedented book explores those implications indepth. Selected by Choice as an Outstanding Book for 1998
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
Competing Views of Revolution and Democratization
5
The Soviet Revolution in Theoretical Perspective
8
Implications for the Structure of the Book
13
The Intellectual Assumptions of Reform
16
Prelude to Revolution
23
The Social Base of the Communist Revolution
25
Communism Job Creation and Economic Security
31
The End of the Partys Leading Role
266
The Creation of a Presidency and the Destruction of the Party
269
The Failure of the Communists as a Parliamentary Party
273
The 1990 Russian Election
278
The Russian Legislature
279
The Candidates
283
The Election
290
PreCongress Negotiations and the Development of Group Politics
298

Communism and Psychological Security
37
The Equilibrium of the Mid1970s
41
The Changing Social Structure of the Brezhnev Period
44
Elite Attitudes and Revolution
51
Conclusion
58
Gorbachevs Ascent and the Circular Flow of Power
61
Gorbachevs Path lo Power
64
The Circular Flow of Power
80
Yury Andropov and The Kirilenko Machine
86
Gorbachev and the Kirilenko Machine
90
The Russian Republic and the Circular Flow of Power
99
The Tragedy of Economic Reform
103
The Start of Economic Reform
106
The Problem of Price Imbalances
111
The Controversy over Price Reform
114
The Radical Economists and the CommandAdministrative System
118
Gorbachev and Ryzhkov on Price Reform
123
Gorbachev and the Radical Economists
135
Democratization and the 1989 USSR Election
140
Political Liberalization
142
Democratization
148
The Creation of a New Legislature
156
The Candidates
161
Paradoxes of the 1989 USSR Election
164
The USSR Congress
169
Foreign and Domestic Policy and the Issue of Eastern Europe
175
Gorbachevs Foreign Policy Team
177
The Soviet Debate on Entente
189
Gorbachevs Foreign Policy
192
Attitudes toward Eastern Europe
196
Policy toward Eastern Europe
198
Conclusion
209
Soviet Federalism and the Problem of Russia
214
The Peculiarities of Soviet Federalism
216
Lenins and Stalins Policy on National Identity
221
The NonRussian Republics
227
The National Identity of the Russians
238
The Economic Grievances of Russia
241
The Problem of the Autonomous Republics
245
The End of Communist Party Rule
249
Gorbachevs Other Options
251
The Communist Party and Economic Reform
255
Gorbachev and the Communist Party
258
The Anxiety of the Summer and Fall of 1989
262
The Election of Boris Yeltsin as Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
304
The Moderate Majority
308
The Struggle between Gorbachev and Yeltsin
315
The Origins of the Conflict
317
The Comeback of Boris Yeltsin
325
Gorbachevs Calculations about Yeltsin
329
Yeltsin as Chairman of the Russian Supreme Soviet
332
Yeltsin and the Russian Congress
335
The Controversy over Economic Reform
341
The Growing Sophistication of the Economic Debate
342
The Failure of the Abalkin Plan
348
The Battle of Radicals and Conservatives
352
The Political Destruction of Nikolai Ryzhkov
357
The Craziness of the 500Day Plan
361
The Union Treaty
373
Toward a RepublicDominated Union
374
The Union Treaty
376
The Subjects of the Federation
381
The Russian Declaration of Sovereignty
386
The First Draft of the Union Treaty
390
The Hysteria of the Winter of 199091
394
Gorbachevs Position
399
The Russian Presidential Election and the
404
The Establishment of an Elected Russian President
405
The Alliance with Aleksandr Rutskoi
410
The Union Treaty and the Russian Presidency
415
The Election for President
420
The August Coup DEtat
422
The Mystery of Gorbachev
432
The Mystery of the Conspirators Plans
437
The Military and The Logic of Collective Action
443
Economic Options and the Breakup of the Union
449
Gorbachev after the Coup
450
The Two Economic Strategies and Russian Independence
456
The Victory of the BurbulisGaidar Position
464
Dilemmas of the Democrats about Democracy
470
The Dissolution of the Soviet Union
477
The Mystery of the Soviet Military
483
Conclusion
490
The Character of the Second Russian Revolution
495
The Importance of Institutions and Incentives
504
Democracy and Democratization
510
The Implications for American Policy
518
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