Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome

Front Cover
University of Chicago Press, May 16, 1994 - Science - 938 pages
Featuring extensive references, updated for this paperback edition, Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome constitutes a landmark contribution to biomedicine and the evolutionary biology of aging.

To enhance gerontology's focus on human age-related dysfunctions, Caleb E. Finch provides a comparative review of all the phyla of organisms, broadening gerontology to intersect with behavioral, developmental, evolutionary, and molecular biology. By comparing species that have different developmental and life spans, Finch proposes an original typology of senescence from rapid to gradual to negligible, and he provides the first multiphyletic calculations of mortality rate constants.
 

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Contents

The Comparative Biology of Senescence
1
Introduction
3
11 The Agenda
4
12 Definitions and Concepts
5
13 Sources of Information and Experimental Approaches
10
14 Mortality Rates and Lifespans
12
15 Evolution and the Relationships between Reproduction and Senescence
33
16 Summary
42
75 Posttranslational Modifications
397
76 Cell Proliferation and DNA Synthesis
412
77 Cell Death
423
78 Memories and Gene Expression
424
79 Summary
425
Fidelity in the Maintenance of Genomic DNA and Its Replication during Senescence
428
81 Introduction
429
82 Somatic Cells and Agerelated Modifications of Genetic Structure
430

Rapid Senescence and Sudden Death
43
21 Introduction
44
22 Developmental Determinants of Rapid Senescence
47
23 Reproductionrelated Rapid Senescence and Sudden Death
75
24 Virus and Episomeinduced Senescence in Filamentous Fungi
108
25 Rapid Senescence and Sudden Death of Unknown Origin
111
26 Summary
114
Gradual Senescence with Definite Lifespan
120
31 Introduction
121
32 Clonal Senescence in Ciliates
125
33 Plants and Invertebrates
126
34 Fish and Lower Vertebrates
133
35 Birds
144
36 Mammals
150
37 Summary
202
Negligible Senescence
206
41 Introduction
207
42 Indeterminate Lifespans and Negligible Senescence
208
43 Finite Lifespans with Negligible Senescence
222
44 Vegetative Reproduction by Somatic Cell Cloning
226
45 Summary of Chapters 24
237
Rates of Living and Dying Correlations of Lifespan with Size Metabolic Rates and Cellular and Biochemical Characteristics
248
51 Introduction
249
52 Correlations of Body Size and Metabolic Rates
251
53 Lifespan Size and Metabolism
266
54 Cellular and Biochemical Correlations with Lifespan
282
55 Summary
295
Genetic Influences on Lifespan Mortality Rates and Agerelated Diseases
298
61 Introduction
299
62 The Nematode Caenorhabditis
300
63 Insects
304
64 Fungi and Plants
315
65 Mammals
317
66 Summary
352
Genomic Functions during Senescence
357
Gene Expression and Macromolecular Biosynthesis
359
71 Introduction
360
73 Differential Gene Expression
364
74 RNA and Protein Synthesis
370
83 Cancer and Agerelated Genetic Changes
445
84 Plasmids and Episomes in Somatic Cells
447
85 Parental Age and Abnormalities in Gametogenesis Fertility and Development
449
86 Summary
462
Developmental Influences on Lifespan and Senescence
464
91 Introduction
465
93 Developmental Influences on Patterns of Senescence
479
94 Developmental Determinants of Regeneration and Cell Renewal
493
95 Summary
495
Postmaturational Influences on the Phenotypes of Senescence
497
101 Introduction
498
103 Diet and Caloric Restriction
504
104 Sex Hormones
537
105 Stress and Corticosteroids
545
106 Costs of Reproduction and Accelerated Senescence
547
107 Immunological Changes and Hormones
550
108 Hypophysectomy
552
How to Measure Influences on Senescence
558
1010 Summary
564
Phylogeny and Evolutionary Changes in Longevity and Senescence
567
111 Introduction
568
112 An Outline of Evolution and a Discussion of Early Biochemical and Molecular Changes
569
113 Examples of Phylogenetic Variations in Senescence and Longevity
573
114 Factors in the Evolution of Senescence and Longevity
622
115 Summary
642
Genomic Mechanisms in the Biology of Extended Time
645
121 Introduction
646
123 Exogenous Factors Endogenous Factors and Cascades
652
124 Types of Genetic Influences on the Lifespan
656
125 Aging in the Biology of Extended Time
660
Appendix 1
663
Appendix 2
667
Appendix 3
669
Glossary
671
Bibliography
681
Author Index
845
Species Index
884
Subject Index
895
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