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affirmed affirming the antecedent analogous analysis antecedent argument Aristotle asserted assumptions asymmetrical axioms becomes body called categorical categorical proposition categorical syllogism causal cause class proposition classification complex conclusions concrete connection contrapositive deal definition determine difficulty discovered disjunctive disjunctive syllogism elements Euathlus experience experimental expressed facts fallacy false figure formal logic fundamental geometry gism given hypothesis hypothetical syllogism illicit major immediate inference instruments interpretation investigation involves judgment kind knowledge major premise material mathematics means ment method Mill's methods modus tollens motion namely nature observation operations organization physical possible postulates predicate principle problem propositional function purpose question rational reasoning relational propositions rules scientific scientist sense standpoint statement statistics subject matter syllogism syllogistic symbolized symmetrical relation terms and relations theory things thinking thought tion transitive relations true universal valid various