## Geodesy, the concepts |

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Page 495

The negative sign, here as well as in (26), shows that the

increasing height, as would be expected. Note that this

mentioned in §16.4, is used when the normal gravity above the ellipsoid is

needed.

The negative sign, here as well as in (26), shows that the

**gradient**decreases withincreasing height, as would be expected. Note that this

**gradient**, alreadymentioned in §16.4, is used when the normal gravity above the ellipsoid is

needed.

Page 497

Bouguer's

sphere of radius R. The

the

Bouguer's

**gradient**. the geoid, Bouguer begins by assuming that the geoid is asphere of radius R. The

**gradient**is then evaluated in two steps: first, the part ofthe

**gradient**due to this assumed geoid is obtained, and then the**gradient**of the ...Page 504

vertical gravity

approaches have been suggested by other researchers; we shall see one viable

alternative in Chapter 22. To compare the curvature of the actual plumb line (

between the ...

vertical gravity

**gradient**can be found in Bodemuller [1957]. Alternativeapproaches have been suggested by other researchers; we shall see one viable

alternative in Chapter 22. To compare the curvature of the actual plumb line (

between the ...

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### Contents

History of Geodesy | 3 |

Geodesy and Other Disciplines | 19 |

Mathematics and Geodesy | 25 |

Copyright | |

27 other sections not shown

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### Common terms and phrases

acceleration accuracy adjustment angle approximation astronomical azimuth called Chapter computed conformal mapping considered coordinate system correction covariance matrix curvature datum defined deformations denoted derived determined differential direction discussed earth earth's gravity field earth's surface effect ellipses equipotential surfaces error estimated evaluated filter formula frequency geocentric geodesists geodesy geodetic networks geoid geoidal height given global gradient gravitational potential gravity anomalies gravity field height differences horizontal networks integration inverse isostasy known least-squares linear lithosphere magnitude mapping mass mathematical model mean measured meridian movements normal equations normal gravity observation equation obtained orbital orthometric orthometric height plane plumb line polar motion potential coefficients probability density function quantities reference ellipsoid refraction relation relative residual rotation sea level shown in Fig solution space spherical statistically dependent statistically independent techniques terrestrial three-dimensional tidal tion transformation unknown parameters VaniCek variance variations vector velocity