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advantage amount apparatus arrangement becomes bends boiler bottom branches building called carried cast iron cause chamber circuit circulation closed coil column common comparatively connection considerable considered cooling course diagram diameter difference direction door elbows equal expansion fahr fire fittings floor flow flue follow gallons give given greater head heat heater heating surface height horizontal hot water hot-water inches increase indirect inlet length less loss lower manner matter method necessary nipples ordinary pass passage pipe placed position pounds practical present pressure probably quantity radiator ratio reason resistance return pipe rising short shown in Fig shows side simple single square feet square foot steam story sufficient supply surface taken tank temperature third tubes units upper usually valve wall warmed
Page 54 - Divide the difference in temperature, between that at which the room is to be kept and the coldest outside atmosphere, by the difference, between the temperature of the steam pipes, and that at which you wish to keep the room, and the product will be the square feet, or fraction thereof, of plate or pipe surface to each square foot of glass, or its equivalent in icaU surface.
Page 9 - ... greater weight than the column fe, above that centre, motion will commence along the upper pipe from A to B, and the change this motion produces in the equilibrium of the fluid will cause a corresponding motion in the lower pipe from B to A, and in short pipes the motion will obviously continue till the temperature be nearly the same in both vessels ; or if the water be made to boil in A it may also be boiling hot in B, because ebullition in A will assist the motion.
Page 58 - ... surface was 76.7 square inches, holding 2.14 pounds of water and cooled from 180° to 150° Fahr. in 29 minutes, the temperature of the air of the room being 57° Fahr. By the same reasoning and method of calculation used in the foregoing examples we can find that the sheet-iron gave off 2.35 heat-units per hour per square foot of surface per degree difference of temperature. These cylinders were as nearly alike as they could be obtained in form and size, and one cover fitted all. They were suspended...
Page 60 - In order to ascertain the velocity of cooling for a surface of cast iron, Mr. Hood selected a pipe 30 inches long, 2^ inches diameter internally, and 3 inches diameter externally. The rates of cooling were tried with different states of the surface ; first, when covered with the usual brown surface of protoxide of iron ; next it was varnished black, and finally the varnish was scraped off, and the pipe painted white with two coats of lead paint. The ratios of cooling 1° were found to be for the...
Page v - The object of this book is to enable a designer to readily determine, not only the proper diameters and lengths of pipes for an equal distribution, but to determine the diameters and lengths for any stated duty or loss of temperature, and at the same time secure a practically equal resistance to the flow of the water through all the circuits of an apparatus. For those who have not the time or inclination to study the subject thoroughly, tables and diagrams have been prepared summarizing the requirements...
Page 9 - A ; and its surface will, in consequence, rise to a higher level (aa), the former general level surface being b b. The density of the fluid in the vessel A will also decrease in consequence of its expansion ; but as soon as the column (cd...
Page 68 - How Heat is Lost from the Rooms of a Building. Simple Formula for Finding the Radiating Surfaces for Buildings. Experiments by Different Authorities on Radiating Surfaces. To Find the Amount of Water that should Pass through a Radiator for a Certain Duty. How to Determine the Size of Inlet and Outlet Pipes for Hot-Water Radiators.
Page 47 - ... Flow of Water by Friction in Long Pipes. Loss of Pressure by Friction of Elbows and Fittings. How the Friction of Elbows and Fittings maybe Reduced to a Minimum. Flow of Water through the Mains of an Apparatus, Considered under its Various Practical Conditions. How to Find the Total Head Required when the Quantity of Water to be Passed and the Size and Length of the Pipes are Known. How to Find the Quantity of Water in US Gallons, that will Pass through a Pipe when the Total Head and Length and...