Analytical aspects of atomic laser spectrochemistry
The development of a reliable, continuously tunable laser has produced a strong revival in atomic and molecular spectroscopy, allowing the more precise measurement of spectral wavelengths of transitions, the performance of various sorts of Doppler-free high-resolution spectroscopy and the collection of spectral information with high sensitivity from a small ensemble of particles. This review discusses the possibilities of the method and its inherent problems. Tunable lasers must be made easier to operate, more stable and less expensive. It is suggested that the semiconductor diode laser could be the solution to these problems, if it is properly developed.
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Competitive Classical Spectrochemical Methods
Atomization of Samples in Laser Spectrochemistry
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air-C2H2 Axner air-C2H2 Turk air-C2H2 Weeks Anal analyte atoms analytical flames applied buffer gas chemical interferences collisional ionization cup or rod cw dye lasers cw laser detection limits diode lasers Dittrich Doppler Doppler profiles dye laser dynamic range electric field Electrothermal atomization exciting laser flame atomizers hollow cathode lamp ICP-MS ICP-OES Inductively Coupled Plasma interaction interference effects ionization limit isotope ratios LAAS laser beam laser excitation laser field laser power laser pumped laser radiation laser spectroscopy Letokhov levels line widths mass spectrometer matrix atoms matrix effects measured method Niemax noble gas noble gas atmosphere obtained off-resonant Omenetto optical particles photoionization photons population densities pulsed laser radiation field resonance line resonant Doppler-free 2-photon RIMS sample is atomized saturation second laser selectively excited semiconductor diode lasers shown in Fig solid samples spectral spectrochemical temperature tion transitions tube Magnusson tunable lasers two-step excitation typically vacuum vapour wavelengths