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Who can calculate in how many of those critical junctures when affairs of weightiest import hang upon the issue of an hour, Prudence and Forecast have triumphed over blind Casualty, by being enabled to measure with precision the flight of time, in its simallest subdivisions ! Is it not something more than mere mechanism, which watches with us by the sick-bed of some dear friend, through the live long solitude of night, enables us to count, in the slackening pulse, nature’s trembling steps toward recovery, and to administer the prescribed remedy at the precise, perhaps the critical, moment of its application ? By means of a watch, punctuality in all his duties, which, in its perfection, is one of the incommunicable attributes of Deity,+-is brought, in no mean measure, within the reach of man. He is enabled, if he will be guided by this half-rational machine, creature of a day as he is, to imitate that sublime precision which leads the earth, after a circuit of five huadred millions of miles, back to the solstice at the appointed moment, without the loss of one second, no, not the millionth part of a second, for the ages on ages during which it has travelled that empyreal road.* What a miracle of art, that a man can teach a few brass wheels, and a little piece of elastic steel, to out-calculate himself; to give him a rational answer to one of the most important questions which a being travelling toward eternity can ask : What a miracle, that a man can put within this little machine a spirit; that measures the flight of time with greater accuracy than the unassisted intellect of the profoundest philosopher; which watches and moves when sleep palsies alike the hand of the maker and the mind of the contriver, nay, when the last sleep has come over them both ! I saw the other day, at Stockbridge, the watch which was worn on the Sth of September, 1755, by the unfortunate Baron Dieskau, who received his mortal wound on that day, near Lake George, at the head of his army of French and Indians, on the breaking out of the seven years' war. This watch, which marked the fierce, severish moments of the battle as calmly as it has done the fourscore years which have since elapsed, is still going ; but the watch-maker and baron have now for more than three-fourths of a century been gone where time is no longer counted. Frederic the Great was another and a vastly more important personage of the same war. His watch was carried away from Potsdam by Napokeon, who, on his rock in mid-ocean, was wont to lo. on the hours of alternate disaster and triumph, which filled up the life of his great fellow-destroyer, and had been equally counted on its dial-plate. The courtiers used to say, that this watch stopped of its own accord, when Frederic died. Short-sighted adulation for if it stopped at his death, as is time was no longer worth measuring, it was soon put in motion, and went on, as if nothing had happened. Portable watches were probably introduced into England in the time of Shakspeare; and he puts one into the hand of his fantastic jester, as the text of his morality. In truth, if we wished to borrow from the arts a solemn monition of the vanity of human things, the clock might well give it to us. How often does it not occur to the traveller in Europe, as he hears the hour tolled from some ancient steeple,_-‘ that iron tongue in the tower of yonder old cathedral, unchanged itself, has had a voice for every change in the fortune of nations ! It has chimed monarchs to their thrones, and knelled them to their tombs; and, from its watch-tower in the clouds, has, with the same sonorous and impartial stoicism, measured out their little hour of sorrow and gladness to coronation and funeral, abdication and accession, revolution and restoration; victory, tumult, and fire:’t and, with like faithfulness, while I speak, the little monitor by my side warns me back from my digression, and bids me beware lest I devote too much of my brief hour, even to its own commendation. Let me follow the silent monition, sustained, perhaps, by the impatience of the audience, and

hasten to the last topic of my address.” Bright and

Our last extract closes the address. grand as are its anticipations of future improvement, none can deny them to be rational. And it is difficult to perceive how any mechanic can hear, or read, the concluding paragraph, without a conscious increase of that self-respect, and that real elevation of character, with which the whole address tends to inspire him.

“So numerous are the inventions and discoveries that have been made in every department, and to such perfection have many arts been carried, that we may, perhaps, be inclined to think that, in the arts, as on the surface of the globe, after all the brilliant discoveries in navigation in the last three centuries, there is nothing left to find out. Though it is probable that, in particular things, no further progress can be made, (and even this I would not affirm, with any confidence,) yet, so far from considering invention as exhausted, or art at a stand, I believe

* It is not, of course, intended that the sidereal year is always of precisely the same length, but that its variations are subject to a fixed law. See Sir Jno. Herschel's Treatise on Astronomy, $563. t Inclusus variis famulatus spiritus astris Et vivum certis motibus urget opus. - laudian. in Sphaer. .7rchimides. f The associations here alluded to have iately been rendered familiar to the public by the Mayor's spirited translation and adaptation to music of Schiller's o poem of The Bell. The idea was originally glanced at in one of Mrs. Elizabeth Montaguc's Letters.

there never was a moment when greater improvements were to be expected : and this for the very reason that so much has already been done, ---that truth, in its nature, is at once boundless and creative, ---and that every existing art, invention, and discovery, is but an instrument of further improvement. Even when any particular art or machine seems to have reached the highest attainable point of excellence, nothing is more likely than that it will, by some wholly unexpected discovery or improvement, be greatly ...}. or |. by accidental or natural association, it will lead to some other very important improvement in a branch of art wholly dissimilar ; or, finally, that it will be superseded by something quite different, but producing the same result. Take, as an example, the art of printing. The simple process of printing with moveable types, and a press moved by hand, does not seem, in the lapse of four hundred years, to have undergone any very material improvement; but the introduction of solid plates, and the application of artificial power to the press, are improvements wholly disconnected, in their nature, from the art of printing, and yet adding incalculably to its efficacy and operative power. In a word, the products of art are the creations of rational mind, working with intelligent and diversified energy, in a thousand directions;---bounding from the material to the moral world, and back from speculation to life ; producing the most wonderful effects on moral and social relations by material means, and again, in an i:nproved political and moral condition, finding instruments and encouragement for new improvements in mechanical art. In this o, action and reaction, we are continually borne on to results the most surprising. Physical and moral causes and effects produce moral and physical effects and causes, and every thin discovered tends to the discovery of something yet unknown. It rarely, perhaps never, happens that any discovery or invention is wholly original ; as rarely, that it is final. As some portion of its elements lay in previously existing ideas, so it will waken new conceptions in the inventive mind. The most novel mechanical contrivance contains within itself much that was known before ; and the most seemingly perfect invention---is we may judge, the future by the past---admits of further improvements. For this reason, the more that is known, discovered and contrived, the ampler the materials out of which new discoveries, inventions, and improvements, may be expected. “Perfect as the steam engine seems, it is a general persuasion that we are in the rudiments of its economical uses. The prodigious advances made in the arts of locomotion, teach nothing more clearly, than the probability that they will be rendered vastly more efficient. The circulation of ideas by means of the press is probably destined to undergo great enlargement. Analytical o has, within the last thirty years, acquired instruments which enable the philosopher to unlock o of nature before unconceived o Machinery of all kinds, and for every purpose, is daily simplified and rendered more efficient. Improved manipulations are introduced into all the arts, and each and all of these changes operate as esticient creative causes of further invention and discovery. Besides all that may be hoped for by the diligent and ingenious use of the materials for improvement afforded by the present state of the arts, the progress of science teaches us to believe that principles, elements and powers are in existence and operation around us, of which we have a very impersect knowledge, perhaps no knowledge whatever. Commencing with the mariner’s compass in the middle ages, a series of discoveries has been made connected with magnetism, electricity, galvanism, the polarity of light, and the electromagnetic phenomena, which are occupying so much attention at the present day, all of which are more or less applicable to the useful arts, and which may well produce the conviction that, if in some respects we are at the meridian, we are in other respects in the dawn of science. In short, all art, as I have said, is a creation of the mind of man---an essence of infinite capacity for improvement. And it is of the nature of every intelligence endowed with such a capacity, however mature in respect to the past, to be at all times, in respect to the future, in a state of hopeful infancy. However vast the space measured behind, the space before is immeasurable; and though the mind may estimate the progress it has made, the boldest stretch of its powers is inadequate to measure the progress of which it is capable. Let me say, then, Mr. President, and Gentlemen of the Mechanic Association,---PER SEVERE. Do any ask what you have done, and what you are doing for the public good? Send them to your exhibition rooms, and let them see the walls of the temple of American Liberty,’ fitly covered with the products of Américan art. And while they gaze with admiration on these creations of the mechanical arts of the country, bid them remember that they are the productions of a people whose fathers were told hy the British ministry they should not manusacture a hob-nail : Does any one ask in disdain for the great names which have illustrated the Mechanic Arts : Tell him of Arkwright, and Watt, of Franklin, of Whitney, and Fulton, whose memory will dwell in the grateful recollections of posterity, when the titled and laurelled destroyers of mankind shall be remembered only with detestation. Mechanics of America, respect your calling, o yourselves. The cause of human improvement has no firmer or more powerful friends. In the great Temple of Nature, whose foundation is the earth,---whose pillars are the eternal bills,<-whose roof is the star-lit sky, --whose organ-tones are the whispering breeze and the sounding storm,-- whose architect is God,---there is no ministry more sacred than that of the intelligent mechanic *

* The exhibition was held in Faneuil Hall.---Ed, Messenger.

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Fauquier McCrery, William......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - Richmond Marshall, Dr. Jacqueline A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fauquier Means, David H................ ....South Carolina | Norris, James........... . Charlottesville Miller, John. . . . . . . . . (W. F. R.)........ Vicksburg | Overton, Mrs. M. A..... Florida McGinty, R. J......... (W. F. R.)....... Vicksburg | Piggott, James........... - - - - - - - - - . Kentucky Marshall, Edward C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fauquier | Pentland, Miss M. L............. . . . . . . . . Pittsburg Marshall, John. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fauquier | Prince, Nicholas........ (T. L. J.)... . . . . . . . Alabama Marshall, Dr. Jacqueline A............... Fauquier | Perkins, Dr. John Quincy........... North Carolina Marshall, j.“. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Fauquier | Redd, Mrs. Mary E. . . . . . . - - - - - - - .....Clarkesville McCabe, John C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richmond | Shook, Jacob...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richmond McLeod, Wm. H. . . . . . . . . . University of N. Carolina | Shepherd, James M..................... Tennessee Notey, Samuel B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alabama | Summers, Judge Lewis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kanawha Nash, H. K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hillsborough | Seawell, John T. ....................... Gloucester Puckett, Dr. Walter R... (W. F. R.)...... Vicksburg Smith, Thomas......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Gloucester Phifer, Misses M.A. & L. . (T.L.J.)... North Carolina | Sherman, Charles E. ... ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Mobile Phifer, John F....... (T. L. J.). . . . . . North Carolina | Scott, Garrett....................... Orange C. H. Peasants, Col. J. J...... (T. L. J.). . . . . . . . Alabama | Skinner, James C. . . . . . . . . . . . ....... North Carolina Pool, Stephen D.................... North Carolina | Thomas, Gabriel J..................... Petersburg Robins, T. E.......... (W. F. R.)....... Vicksburg | Village Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North Carolina Richardson, Mrs. Eliza T. F. . . . . . . . - - - - - - ... Boston | Wright ov 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... West Point

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Has for sale one of the best selected and largest assortments of Goods, in his line of business, ever In the selection of his Stationery, he had a special regard to quality and the comfort of the consumer. In both points, he trusts that his purpose is happily effected.

offered to the public.

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. His present stock of Goods has been selected by him in person, and is, as he unhesitatin in quality and variety to any in the country. As to cheapness, he will remark, that he is very

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i. avows, equal esirous of redu

cing his extensive stöck, and offers his Goods at a very small advance, being determined that he will not be

undersold even by cheap auctioneers, nor will he at entitled.

any time give a character to his Goods to which they are not

JANUARY, 1838.

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of the Virginia Court of Appeals. By a Virginian....... Review of N. P. Willis's Poems. By a Virginian......... | Lord Bacon. Part II. His Character, and Writings.-The Baconian Philosophy; its chief peculiarity; its end Fruit: | Bacon contrasted with Seneca; superiority of the Baconian, to the ancient Philosophy, even to that of Socrates, still more, to that of Epicurus; Fruitlessness of ancient philosophy; why? its disdain of the merely useful j its disrepute, even before Bacon's time; its false use, and false estimate, of the Sciences; arithmetic ; geometry; astronomy; alphabetical writing; medicine: differunce of Bacon in these respects. (Prepared for the Messenger.) Human Nature Windicated...................... --------Discourse on American Literature. By George Tucker, Esp. Professor of Belles-Lettres and Natural Philosophy, in the University of Virginia.................. -------- Lexicographic Acumen..............--------------Journal cf a Trip to the Mountains, Caves and Springs of Virginia. By a New-Englander. Dedicated to Charles E. Sherman, Esq. of Mobile, Ala. Chapter L. Locomotive from Boston to Providence; Railroads and railings; sleepers in Steamboats; New York, New Jersey, and Philadelphia; Judge Marshall; Baltimore; Page's; RipRaps; Hampton Roads; James River; Steamboat Rating; Arrival at Richmond........ -------------------The Governess. By the Author of “The Curse”—a Virgiria lady---------------- --------------- -------- -----The Far West and its Native Inhabitants, being a Review of Washington Irving's late work, “The Rocky Mountains, or, Scenes, Incidents, and Adventures in the Far West.” By a Virginian................. -------------The Deserter: a Romance of the American Revolution, founded on a well authenticated incident. Chapter X, and last, with an Appendix. By a Mississippian.......

Biography of the late Hon. Dabney Carr, one of the Judges

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ORIGINAL PAPERS–(contnued.)

pace

Review of “Hallam's View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages.” By a Southerner...... ------------ Review of Dr. Johnson's Tragedy of “Irene.” By a Native of Virginia.-------------------------------------The Truce Ground. A Tale of the Revolutionary War. Scene in South Carolina, during Gen. Marion’s exploits. From the Diary of an Invalid. No. III. By a Lady of this State............--------------------------------An Address on the Utility of Astronomy: delivered before the “Young Men's Society” of Lynchburg, Sept. 26th, 1837, by Professor Landon C. Garland, of Randolph Macon College; and published by request of the Society in the Southern Literary Messenger...................... Something on Sonnets. By James F. Otis. Specimen of Causticity..................... Shakspeare and the Critics. By a Marylander......... The Lyceum-No. VI. Advices to sundry kinds of People. By Gulliver the Younger. Chapter III. Rules for Conversation... -------. ------ ---------------------------Dialogue between Lord Bacon and Shakspeare. (Selected.) Samuel Johnson and David Hume compared. (do.).....

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RICHMOND, Va.
T. w white, PRINTER, OPPOSITE THE BELL TAVERN.

to-This work is published in monthly numbers of 64 pages each, at $5 the vol. in advance: the postage on each No. for 100 miles or less, is 6 cts—over 100 miles 10 cts.

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All persons who have made payments early enough to be entered, and whose names do not appear on this

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PAYMENTS TO WOL. IV.

Ambler, Philip St. George................ Richmond
Allmand, Henry S. ... . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - Norfolk
Abell, Alexander Pope............... Charlottesville
Archer, Dr. Robert. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Old Point
Ailworth, James J.. . Northampton
Bryce, Campbell R. . South Carolina
Bowers, Moreau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Williamsbur
Brent, Henry J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington, D.C.
Bayly, Josiah..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .....Maryland
Bridges, James R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... Richmond
Barksdale, F. ....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - .....Mississippi
Brooks, James G. . . . . . ......... - - - - - - ... Richmond
Bell, Joseph. . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - ... North Carolina
Burcher, James... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hampton
Booth, Junius Brutus.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....Baltimore
Barraud, Otway T. ... ... ogo: ....... Norfolk
Barnum, David....... .....W.S. . . . . . . . . Baltimore
Buckler, Dr. John C. ....... W.S........ . Baltimore
Beale, Philip R..... - - - - - - - .R.N.pn......... Norfolk
Campbell, Mrs. Martha J....A.H.P........ Georgia
Carter, Addison B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natchez
Conquest, Miss Emma V. S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accomac
Currell, William........ -
Condon, Pierce....... - -
Christian, Dr. Wm. D............. ....Buckingham
Carey, Mathew. . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - -Philadelphia
Crane, Commodore Wm. M....... Portsmouth, N. H.
Cross, Dr. C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - North Carolina
Cleneay, Francis W..................... Kentucky
College Reading Room................. Carlisle, Pa.
Chi-Delta Society............. . . . . . . . . . . Tennessee
Collins, Miss Maria...... W.S.;.........Maryland
Courtney, E. S. . . . . . . . . . . . W.S. ........ . Baltimore
Carroll, Miss Emily W. ............ ... Isle of Wight
Doniphan, T. A. S. . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Natchez
Drish, Dr. John.................. . . . . . . . . Alabama
Du Pré, Miss Sarah.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Raleigh
Duncan, Coleman..... W.W.W.tp.. Kentucky
Erwin, John S. . . - - - - - .Chapel Hill
Francis, James..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . orfolk
Fisher, E. Burke..................... Pennsylvania
Fry, Joshua J....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richmond
Fitzhugh, Miss A. E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dumfries
Gibson, Shadrach A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - Georgia
Garland, Maurice H......... - - - - - - - - - - - #.
Gettings, John S. . . . . . . . . . W.S.......... altimore
Gilmor, Robert. . . . . . . . ....W.S..... ....Baltimore
Harriss, Dr. A. S........T.L.J.pn......... Alabama
Hutchinson, D.C........T.A.S.D. . . . . . . . . Natchez
Hall, Nelson W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ....Henrico
Heron, Walter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Norfolk
Herndon, John M............. .....Fredericksburg
Hill, Charles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aymond, Miss.
Hicks, A. W. O......... - - - - - labama
Holt, William A.... ... New Orleans
Holman, J. Thompson. - *.
Helms, Dr. Jeremiah S. . . . . . . . . ...... ..... Alabama
Jones, Philip H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - -Louisa
Jenkins. Robert H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richmond
James, Miss Sarah A.W................ Brunswick
Janney, Samuel H........ .......... Prince William
Johnson, William B...... - - - - - - - - - - - ... . Goochland
Jack, Miss Frances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jefferson
Jones, Gabriel............................ Georgia
Jordan, M. B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - Alabama
Jones, Walter J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Georgia
Jett, John F. .... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ......Tennessee
Kirk, Samuel........... ...W.S.........Baltimore

Luckett, Mountjoy B................... Maryland

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