New Orleans Dockworkers: Race, Labor, and Unionism 1892-1923
This book investigates the conditions which led to a remarkable instance of interracial solidarity known as "half and half," an expression used to identify the cooperation and cohesion among 10,000 Black and white dockworkers during the early twentieth century. Through interracial agreements which divided work and union leadership equally between Blacks and whites, dockworkers reduced the workload and pace imposed by shipping firms, and formed the basis for the general dock strike of 1907, described as "one of the most stirring manifestations of labor solidarity in American history." Rosenberg explores the phenomenon of "half and half" within the context of progressive segregation, as employers encouraged competition between and division of the races.
Rosenberg also probes the nature of longshore work, dockworkers' views of Jim Crow, and industrial unionist trends, as well as the conclusions drawn by dockers after the levee race riots of the 1890s--"the working of the white and negro races on terms of equality has been the fruitful source of most of the trouble on the New Orleans levee."
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A. J. Ellis April August Baton Rouge Bennetts Black and white Black dockworkers Black longshoremen Black screwmen Black workers Black-white Brauer-Zeitung Brewery Workers Central Trades Chris Scully colored commerce committee contract Cordill Cotton Council cotton teamsters Cotton Yardmen Covington Hall Crescent City delegates disputes docks dockworkers E. S. Swan early twentieth century employers February foremen freight handlers Galveston Gompers hired Illinois Central industrial James Byrnes July June labor movement leaders levee labor levee unions locals longshoremen Louisiana March NAC Records Negro nonunion November October October 11 October 22 organized labor Orleans Orleans dockworkers Oscar Ameringer Picayune president race relations racial railroad Rufus Ruiz SBA Records segregation September September 11 solidarity Southern Pacific steamship agents stevedores stowage strikebreakers teamsters Thomas Harrison Times-Democrat Times-Picayune tion Trades and Labor unionists United Labor Council W. E. B. Du Bois wages white and Black white longshoremen white screwmen white supremacy white-Black York