Processes in Karst Systems: Physics, Chemistry, and Geology
Karst Systems deal with the question of how the subsurface drainage system, typical of Karst areas develops from its initial state to maturity. Equal attention is given to physical, chemical and geological conditions which determine karstification. The reader will find discussions of mass transport, chemical kinetics, hydrodynamics of fluxes, and the role of dissolution and precipitation of Calcite as they occur in experiments and natural environments. It offers a wealth of information on a complex natural system to hydrologists, hydrochemists, geologists and geographers.
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Hydrodynamics of Flow
Modelling the Kinetics of Calcite Dissolution
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aperture aquifer average bedding plane boundary conditions boundary layer Buhmann and Dreybrodt CaCO3 calcite dissolution calcite surface calcium calculated carbonate cave development cave passages channels chemical closed system CO2 conversion CO2 pressure concentration curves D.C. Ford dependence diameter diffusion boundary layer dissolution rates dissolved distance elementary reactions equilibrium Ewers experiments factor Figure first-order fissures flow velocity flux fracture function given groundwater HCO3 hydraulic gradient hydraulic head hydrodynamic increasing initial input ionic joints karst systems karst water karstification laminar flow limestone mass transport mmol cm obtained open system output particles penetration lengths permeability phreatic phreatic zone Plummer porous medium precipitation rates rate constant rate equation rate laws region rock saturation shown in Fig shows solution species speleothems stalagmite supersaturated temperature thickness tion tubes turbulent flow vadose vadose zone values water table Writeln Drucker zone