When Does Gender Matter?: Women Candidates and Gender Stereotypes in American Elections
"As the number of women candidates for office in the U.S. increases each election cycle, scholars are confronted with questions about the impact of their sex on their chances of success. Chief among these questions involves the influence of gender stereotypes on the decisions voters make in elections in which women run against men. Previous research documents that voters see women and men as possessing different character traits and different abilities to handle policy issues. These findings, combined with anecdotal evidence of sexist attitudes toward women candidates, raises concerns that women candidates are hampered by their sex and gender considerations. Employing data from an original survey of 3150 U.S. adults conducted in 2010, this book confronts scholarly concerns that gender stereotypes work to undermine women's chances of success. Challenging the conventional wisdom, these data demonstrate that voters do not rely heavily on gender stereotypes when evaluating and voting for women candidates. Voters do hold gendered attitudes, both positive and negative, about women candidates, but these attitudes are not related to the political decisions voters make. Instead, in deciding for whom to vote, people are influenced by traditional political forces, like political party and incumbency, regardless of the sex of the candidates. There is also evidence that partisan stereotypes interact with gender stereotypes to influence reactions to candidates, both women and men, depending on their political party. In the end, this project demonstrates that women candidates win as often as do men and that partisan concerns trump gender every time"--
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1 Candidate Sex and Gender Stereotypes in American Elections
2 Studying Gender Stereotypes and Women Candidates
3 Attitudes Stereotypes and Support for Women Candidates
4 Do Stereotypes Shape Evaluations of Candidates?
5 The Role of Stereotypes in Vote Choice Decisions
6 Gender Stereotypes in Other Places? Candidate Quality and Issue Campaigns
7 The Landscape for Women Candidates
Appendix A Candidate Lists
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Abortion abstract gender stereotypes abstract stereotypes analysis Barack Obama better better/no difference candidate sex Christine Quinn Congress Democratic candidates Democratic male Democratic women candidates didates Dolan Economy/Jobs elected office evaluate women Evaluation of Evaluation evaluations and vote examine Female policy stereotypes Female trait stereotypes gendered attitudes governor race Hillary Clinton House candidates House races impact of gender impact of stereotypes important incumbent influence Kelly Ayotte Lawless less Linda McMahon male candidates male opponents Male policy stereotypes male-only races Meg Whitman mixed-sex races Nikki Haley number of women Pat Kenney people’s Pew Research Center policy and trait political party related to vote reotypes Republican women run for office same-sex representation Sanbonmatsu Sarah Palin Senate races Smaller Government Social Security/Medicare Spending/Debt stereo Table trait evaluations two-tailed test U.S. House U.S. Representative U.S. Senate variables vote choice decisions Wall Street/Bailouts websites woman women in office women in politics Women’s Issues