## New Developments in Black Hole ResearchA black hole is a point of extreme mass in space-time with a radius, or event horizon, inside of which all electromagnetic radiation (including light) is trapped by gravity. A black hole is an extremely compact object, collapsed by gravity which has overcome electric and nuclear forces. It is believed that stars appreciably larger than the Sun, once they have exhausted all their nuclear fuel, collapse to form black holes: they are "black" because no light escapes their intense gravity. Material attracted to a black hole, though, gains enormous energy and can radiate part of it before being swallowed up. Some astronomers believe that enormously massive black holes exist in the centre of our galaxy and of other galaxies. This book brings together leading research from throughout the world. |

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### Contents

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TEV BLACK HOLE PRODUCTION BY HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS | 45 |

INTERSECTION OF BLACK HOLE THEORY AND QUANTAM CHROMODYNAMICS THE GLUON PROPAGATOR CORRESPONDING TO LI... | 67 |

ACCRETION ONTO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN QUASARS LEARNING FROM OPTICALUV OBSERVATIONS | 123 |

### Common terms and phrases

accretion disk accretion rate AGNs air showers ansatz ApJL Appendix arXiv:hep Baldwin effect black hole blueshifted Cartan subalgebra collapse component confining solutions continuum coordinates correlation corresponding cosmological constant cross section Dirac equation Dirac operator distantly observed Dultzin-Hacyan Eddington limit eigenspinor Einstein Einstein field equations emission lines emitting energy density erg/s estimate euclidean Dirac operator factor Felluv field equations flux galaxies GBHC gravitational inner disk ionization Lboi/^Edd Lett linear confinement magnetic colour field magnetic field magnetic moments magnetosphere Marziani mass MECO MECO surface metric MNRAS momentum neutrino NLSyls nonperturbative nonrelativistic obtained optically thick outflow parameter particle photon Phys physical quantum quarks quasars quiescent luminosity radiation radio radius redshift region relation relativistic bound RL sources rotating SDSS spectral spectrum spin spinor Subsection Sulentic UHECRs Universe variability velocity width x-ray