The Law of Slander and Libel in Civil and Criminal Cases

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Callaghan, 1914 - Libel and slander - 1318 pages
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Contents

The Edict of Valentinian and Valens
14
The Difficulties of the Civil Law
15
The Ruins of the Roman Law
17
Under Alfred and Edgar
18
Under the Norman KingsBracton
19
The Statute of Westminster
20
Libels of the Star Chamber
22
Justices of the Peace
24
Concluding Remarks
25
History of the American Law Identical with the English Law
26
An Early Colonial Statute
27
CHAPTER II
29
THE AMERICAN LAW OF DEFAMATION
31
Defamation Defined and ClassifiedWritton Defamation LibelOral Defamation SlanderBut Different Meth ods of Accomplishing the Same Wrong
32
Special Damages
37
CHAPTER IV
42
What is not LibelousIllustrationsDigest of American
65
LIBELS CLASSIFIED
71
Cases
88
CHAPTER V
97
selvesDigest of English Cases
104
ForgeryThe Offense DefinedCommon Law 165
107
Ogdens Case
110
The English Rule
111
The American Rule
112
Extent of the Rule
113
General IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
114
Digest of English Cases
116
The Substantial Cause of the Action
118
Nature and Character of the Crime Imputed
119
Digest of English Cases
121
Imputations Containing No Definite ChargeSuspicions
122
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
123
Degree of the OffenseOffenses Punishable by Fines etc Only
124
Digest of English Cases
125
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
126
The Imputation May be General
127
Digest of English Cases
128
Imputation of Impossible Offenses
129
Digest of English Cases
130
1 Wrongful Taking 2 The Removal
131
The Criminal Intent
132
Larceny Restricted to Personal PropertyRule of the Common Law
133
Statutory Modifications of the Rule
134
Other Words of Like Import
135
PerjuryThe Offense Defined
138
The General RuleExamples
139
False SwearingThe Law Illustrated
140
Materiality of the Testimony Charged to be False
141
1 Without a ColloquiumAmerican CasesEnglish Cases
142
General IllustrationsDigest of American CasesWhat is a Court of Competent JurisdictionMateriality of the Testimony
144
The Off ense under Statutes
146
HomicideThe Offense DefinedIt is Felonious when
147
The Moral Effect of the Charge
148
ManslaughterDefined
150
Words Imputing the Commission of the OffenseIllustrations American CasesEnglish Cases 135
151
AccessoryWords Imputing the Offense
152
123a Words Imputing the Commission of the OffenseAmerican CasesEnglish Cases
153
Attempts to Commit CrimesIllustrationsAmerican Cases English Cases
154
Keeping a BawdyhouseIllustrationsAmerican Cases English Cases
155
BigamyThe Offense Defined
156
BlackmailingStatutory Offense
158
BriberyThe Offense Defined
159
Bribery of Voters
160
The Moral Effect of the Charge
161
CheatingThe Offense DefinedWords Imputing the Com mission of this and Kindred Offenses
162
CounterfeitingThe Offense Defined
163
Denned
167
IncestThe Offense Defined
168
Words Imputing the Commission of the OffenseAmerican CasesEnglish Cases
169
LibelThe Offense DefinedExamples
170
The Moral Effect of the Charge
171
RobberyThe Offense Defined
172
Words Imputing the Commission of the OffenseAmerican CasesEnglish Cases
173
SodomyBestialityBuggeryThe Crime against Nature The Offense Defined
174
Words Imputing the Commission of the OffenseAmerican CasesEnglish Cases
175
Soliciting Another to Commit an OffenseDefinition
176
Words Imputing the Commission of the OffenseAmerican CasesEnglish Cases
177
CHAPTER VII
178
AdulteryThe Offense Defined
183
A ProstituteThe Term Defined
185
Words Held Not to Impute the Commission of the Offense American Cases 138
186
IllustrationsGeneral Digest of American Cases
187
IllustrationsFormer Rule in England
196
IllustrationsCases under 54 55 Vict c 51
197
CHAPTER VIII
199
The Words Must be Spoken of the Person in His Office Pro fession or Trade
200
The Rule Stated by Andrews J
201
Prejudice and Malice Implied
202
Digest of English Cases
205
The Words Must Touch the Person in His Office Profession or Trade
208
Rule as to Publication While Defamed Person Holds the Office Practices His Profession or Carries on His Trade
209
Requisites of the Imputation
212
Digest of English Cases
215
Meaning of the Terms Actionable perae in Themselves etc Illustrations 217
217
Imputation of a Want of Special Knowledge
218
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
219
Attorneys and Solicitors
220
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
221
Digest of English Cases
222
Barristers
223
Clergymen and Ministers of the Gospel
224
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
226
Medical MenPhysiciansSurgeonsPharmacists
227
The Law Stated
228
Digest of English Cases
230
Other Professions and TradesArchitects Dentists Teachers Surveyors Mechanics and the Like
231
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
232
The Extent of the Rule
233
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
234
Digest of English Cases
235
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
237
Digest of English Cases
239
CHAPTER IX
240
The Law Stated by Metcalf J
241
English Illustrations
242
CHAPTER X
244
Illustration
246
CHAPTER XI
247
Nature of the Action
248
Requisites of the Action
249
l The Words Must be False
250
3 A Pecuniary Loss Must Occur
251
The Plaintiffs Interest or Title
252
Statements of Attorneys and Agents
253
The Subject Divided
254
Slander of Title of Letters PatentCopyrights and Trade marksIllustrationsDigest of American Cases
255
Digest of E nglish Cases
272
Injunctions Restraining Slander of Property
274
Slander to Try TitleAction of Jactitation
276
CHAPTER XII
278
What Amounts to a Publication
279
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
280
Digest of English Cases
284
23? Communications by Telegrams Postal Cards etc
285
IllustrationsDigest of American Oases
287
Digest of English Cases
288
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
289
Digest of English Cases
291
Publication to Third Persons Necessary
292
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
293
Husband and Wife as Third Persons
294
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
295
Joint and Several Liability
296
The Law Stated by Best C J
297
IllustrationsDigest of English Cases
298
Every Sale or Delivery a Separate Publication
299
The Author of a Slander not Responsible for Voluntary and Unjustifiable Repetitions
300
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
301
Manner of Publication
302
Manner of Sale and Delivery
306
Exceptions to Rule in United States
309
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
310
CHAPTER XIII
312
The Subject Classified
313
The Defamation Must be Apparent
314
Digest of English Cases
315
False PretensesDigest of American CasesDigest of English Cases
317
LarcenyDigest of American CasesDigest of English Cas
318
MurderDigest of American CasesDigest of English Casesy
319
PerjuryAt Common LawDigest of American Casesi
320
Receiving Stolen GoodsDigest of English Cases 5322
322
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
323
Digest of English Cases
324
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
325
Words Applying to a Class
326
The Rule Stated by Chief Justice Shaw
327
Digest of English Cases
328
Defamatory Words Applicable to Different Persons
329
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
330
Digest of English Cases
331
Indirect Defamation
334
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
335
The Defamatory ChargeHow Conveyed
336
First by Adjective WordsIllustrationsDigest of American Cases
337
Third in a Question and AnswerIllustrationsDigest of American Cases
338
Digest of English Cases
339
Expressions in the Alternative
340
CHAPTER XIV
341
First Words Obviously Defamatory
342
Digest of English Cases
344
Second Words Ambiguous but Susceptible of an Innocent Meaning
345
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
346
Third Meaningless WordsSlang ExpressionsWords in a Foreign Language or Used in Some Local Technical or Customary Sense
348
Slang ExpressionsProvincial or Obsolete Expressions
349
Fourth Words Apparently Innocent but Capable of a Defam atory MeaningWords Spoken Ironically
351
The Law Stated by Chief Justice Shaw
352
Duty of the Jury in Determining the Meaning
353
Digest of English Cases
355
Words Spoken Ironically
358
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
359
Digest of English Cases
360
CHAPTER XV
361
The General Rule
362
The Duty of the Court and Province of the Jury
363
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
364
A New York Case Van Rensselaer v Dole 1 Johns Cas 279 An Illinois Case Ayers v Grider 15 Ill 37 A New York Case Phillips v
365
Digest of American Cases
367
Digest of English Cases
368
Words in Common Parlance
369
Digest of American Cases
370
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
371
Digest of English Cases
373
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
374
The Former Rule in England
375
Defamatory Words to be Taken in the Sense which Fairly Belongs to Them
377
Defamatory Matter to be Taken as a Whole
378
A New York Case Dexter v
379
Digest of American Cases
380
Witnesses Not to Give Their Understanding of the Meaning of Defamatory Words
381
Unsettled State of the Law
384
CHAPTER XVI
387
Malice as a Term of Law
388
MaliceA General Discussion
389
Malice Refers to the Motive Not to the Intention
390
The Law Implies Malice when
391
Consequences of the Distinction
392
Malice Denned by Starkie
393
By Erie C J
394
By Lord Justice Brett
395
A Question for the Jury
396
Privileged Communications
397
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
398
Digest of English Cases
400
Malice Inferred
402
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
403
Digest of English Cases
404
Repetition of Defamatory Matter Competent to Show Malice
405
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
406
Reiteration of Libels or Slanders after Suit Brought
407
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
408
Former and Subsequent DefamationsWhen Evidence of Malice
409
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
410
Extrinsic Evidence of Malice
411
Templeton v Graves 59 Wis 95
412
Digest of American Cases
413
Mode and Extent of Publication
414
Intemperate ExpressionsExaggerated and Unwarranted
415
Digest of English Cases
416
The Method of Communication Employed
417
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
418
Privileged CommunicationsUndue Publicity
419
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
420
Plea of JustificationWhen Evidence of Malice
422
The Better Rule
423
CHAPTER XVII
424
Repetition of Slanders Originated by Others
425
A Massachusetts Case Kinney v McLaughlin 5 Gray 3 66 Am Deo 345 An Indiana Case Funk v Beardsley 112 Ind 190
426
437 Digest of American Cases
427
Digest of English Cases
428
State of the Law in England
429
Lord Northamptons Case
430
The Law in Starkies Time
431
The Person Who Repeats the Slander is Liable
432
Exceptions to the Rule
433
CHAPTER XVIII
434
Parties to the Action
435
2 As Defendants
436
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
437
The Doctrine Discussed
438
Liability to Indictment
439
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
440
Slander of the Wife Before Marriage
441
After Marriage
442
The Rule under Statutes
443
Abatement of the Action
446
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
447
Digest of English Cases
448
Infants
449
Lunatics
450
Bankrupts
452
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
453
Digest of English Cases
454
Liability for an Act of a Partner or Agent
455
The English Law
456
Personal RepresentativesExecutors and Administrators
457
Principal and AgentMaster and Servant
458
Agents and Servants Liability
459
Ratification of Unauthorized Acts
460
NewspapersLiability of Proprietors and Editors
461
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases 462
462
Digest of English Cases
463
Criminal Liability
464
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
465
Receivers
466
Joint Defendants
467
Libel of ClassRight of Action by Individual
468
Digest of English Cases
471
CHAPTER XIX
472
A Maryland Case Hunckel v Voneiff 69 Md 179 9 Am St Rep 413 A Tennessee Case Shadden v McElwee 86 Tenn 146 6 Am St
473
A Minnesota Case Blake
475
Privileged Communications Defined
476
The Doctrine Discussed
477
Illustrations
478
Burden of Proving Malice
479
The Question of Privilege for the Court
480
Duty of the Court when the Communication is Privileged
481
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
482
2 Agencies Mercantile etc
490
3 Associations Churches etc
492
4 Attorneys and Counselors at Law etc 491
494
6 Employer and Employee
496
7 Judicial Proceedings etc
497
8 Master and Servant etc
498
10 Public Officers
499
The Subject Classified
508
The Rule Founded on Public Policy
509
Petitions and Memorials to Legislature
510
The Law of England
511
Digest of American Cases
513
The Rule in England
514
The American Rule
515
The Rule Stated by Shaw C J
516
Judges of Courts
517
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
518
Barristers and AttorneysRule in England
519
Rule in America
520
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
537
Digest of English Cases
538
Privilege of Parties
539
A Massachusetts Case Hoar v Wood 3 Met 193 A New York Case Allen v
541
Witnesses
543
The Rule in Starkie
544
The Reason for the Rule
545
Rule in Georgia
546
Digest of American Cases
555
Digest of English Cases
556
Proceedings before Committees
557
The American Rule
558
Digest of American Cases
566
Digest of English Cases
569
A Michigan Case Park v
570
Third ClassCommunications Relative to Naval and Mili
571
Heads of DepartmentsKeepers of the Archives
572
Second the Qualified PrivilegeThe Subject Classified
574
Character of the Duty Cast upon the Party Communicating
575
The Party Must Guard against Exaggerated Expressions
576
Province of the Court and the Jury
578
The Rule Stated by Chief Justice Shaw
579
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
580
Digest of English Cases
581
No Confidential Relation Existing between the Parties
583
Danger of Voluntary Statements
585
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
586
Digest of English Cases
587
Communications Relating to the Character of Servants
591
A Favorable Character May be Retracted
592
Eagerness to Prevent Former Servant from Obtaining Em ployment Evidence of Malice
593
Digest of English Cases
594
The General Rule
595
Pertinency of the Answers
596
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
597
Digest of English Cases
598
Confidential Communications not in Answer to Inquiries
599
The Cases Distinguished
600
Communications Relating to the Misconduct of Others and CrimesA Duty Owed to the Public
601
The Rule Stated by Inglis L P
602
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
603
Digest of English Cases
604
Communications Containing Charges against Public Officers
606
Caution to be Observed in Making Statements
608
A Wisconsin Case Ellsworth v Hayes 71 Wis 427
609
Digest of English Cases
611
The Rule Stated by Raron Fitzgerald
612
Communications Provoked by a Partys MisconductThe Right to Defend Ones Character
625
Limitation of the Rule
626
A Minnesota Case Quimby v Minnesota Tribune Co 38 Minn 528 8 Am St Rep 693 A Massachusetts Case Sheffill v Van Deusen 13
627
Digest of English Cases
628
THIRD CLASS QUALIFIED PRIVILEGE 623 Parties Having a Common Interest
629
A Michigan Case Bacon v
630
Digest of American Cases
632
Digest of English Cases
635
Where there is a Community of Interest
638
Digest of English Cases
640
Exaggerated Expressions not Privileged
641
Communications Relating to Candidates for Office
642
Freedom of the Discussion
643
Pennsylvania Rule
644
A Michigan Case Wheaton v Beecher 66 Mich 307
645
Digest of American Cases
646
Digest of English Cases
651
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
652
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
654
Digest of English Cases
655
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
657
Digest of English Cases
660
Exceptions to the Rule
662
Reports of Ex Parte Proceedings and Preliminary Examina tions
663
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
664
Digest of English Cases
667
Essentials of the Report
668
Not Essential that the Report Should be Verbatim
669
The Press Has no Exclusive Privilege
670
Partial Reports
672
Reports to be Confined to the Proceedings
674
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
675
Questions of Practice for Consideration
676
Duty of the Jury
677
Consequences of the Publication
678
Digest of English Cases
679
Statutory Changes in England
680
Statutory Changes in the United States
682
Construction of StatutesNewspaper
683
Public Meeting
684
CHAPTER XX
686
Cockburn C J Lord Ellenborough and Lord Kenyon
689
Criticism Distinguished from Defamation
690
The Right to Publish Fair and Candid Criticism
691
Comment upon Admitted Facts
692
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
693
Digest of English Cases
696
Comments Must be Fair and Honest
699
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
700
Digest of English Cases
702
Matters of Public Interest
703
The Subject Classified
704
Matters Concerning the Administration of the Government
705
Digest of English Cases
706
Matters Pertaining to the Administration of Public Justice
707
Manner of Publication
709
Digest of English Cases
710
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
711
Matters Relating to Appeals for Public Patronage
712
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
713
Digest of English Cases
714
Matters Pertaining to Literary Publications Books Pictures etc
715
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
716
Digest of English Cases
718
Matters Concerning the Character and Quality of Publio Entertainments
719
Criticism on Subjects of Public Exhibition
720
Digest of English Cases
721
Matters Relating to Religious Bodies Churches and Associ ations
722
Extent of the Right to Publish the News
723
Publications Made for Sensation and to Increase Circulation
724
CHAPTER XXI
725
The Pleadings in Actions for Defamation
727
IllustrationsDigest of New York Cases
728
Modification of the Common Law System
730
Forms Prescribed in Alabama
731
In Tennessee
732
The Declaration at Common LawIts Form and Particular Parts
733
Third Inducement of Good Character
734
Sixth Statement of Extrinsic MattersCommission of an Offense
735
A Massachusetts Case Bloss v Toby 2 Pick 320Digest of American Cases
736
The Inducement when Necessary
740
The Inducement when Not Necessary
743
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
744
An Old English Form An Illinois Form A Modern English Precedent
745
Declaring upon Defamatory Matter at Common Law Traverse of Extrinsic Matter
746
Seventh Statement of Malicious Intent
747
The Statement Essential
748
McCallum v Lambie 145
749
Ninth the Imputation with the Innuendoes
753
The Innuendo Denned
754
The Office of the Innuendo
755
A Wisconsin Case Singer v
757
Truth of the Innuendo a Question for the Jury
765
The Plaintiff Must Abide by His Innuendo
766
It Cannot Restrict the Defendants RightsThe Defense Must be as Broad as the Attack
767
Form of the Second Count
769
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
770
Eleventh the Ad Damnum
771
Loss of Acquaintances An Old English Pre cedent An American Form English Modern Forms Words Actionable in Themselves Imputation of In sol...
774
Pelzer v Bemsh 67 Wis 291 An American Common Law Form A Modern English Precedent
775
Statement of Cause of ActionIllustrations
776
Requisites of the Declaration
785
Statement of the Negotiation for Sale of the Property
786
The General Effect of the Plea
787
Burden of Proof Cast upon the Plaintiff
788
Notice of Special Matter
789
JustificationThe PleaTruth of Defamatory Words
790
The Plea at Common Law
791
The General RuleIllustrations
792
Defamatory Matter Must be Explained by the Innuendoes
793
Libels Containing a Specific Charge
794
Imputation of Passing Counterfeit Money Imputation of Fornication Imputation of Keeping Disorderly House
795
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
796
2 What is a Justification
799
3 What is Not a Justification
801
General Digest of English Cases
804
Effect of a Failure to Establish the Plea
806
Bill of Particulars under the General Issue
807
IllustrationIts Form at Common Law
808
CHAPTER XXII
809
Declaration in Slander at Common LawSkeleton Form
812
A General Form at Common Law
814
A Short FormImputation of Robbery and Larceny
815
For Charging Plaintiffs with Arson
816
For Indirect Imputation of Perjury
817
For Charging the Plaintiff with Swearing Falsely
819
For Words Imputing a Propensity to Commit Sodomy etc
820
For Charging Clergyman with Immorality
821
For Words Imputing a Want of Chastity
823
For Words Spoken in a Foreign Language
824
For Slander by Question and Answer
825
For Words Spoken Ironically
826
819 Declaration by Husband and Wife Against Husband and Wife for Slander by the WifeImputation of Perjury
827
For Words Spoken of a Magistrate in His Office
828
For an Imputation of Insolvency to a Tradesman
829
For an Imputation of a Want of Integrity to a Trader
830
For Words Slandering Plaintiff in His TradeImputation of Keeping False Books
831
For Charging a Butcher with Selling Diseased Meat
833
Libel 825 Declaration for a Libel at Common LawIndirect Imputation of Perjury
834
A Modern English PrecedentLibel Posted in Public Place
837
Character of ServantImputation of Bad Temper and Lazi nessAnother Form
841
For a Libel by Letter Intimating Insolvency
843
For a Libel in Letter Charging Adultery
844
For a Libel on a Party in His Trade Imputing Insolvency
846
For a Libel on an Attorney
847
For a Libel by EffigyNew York Code
849
For a Libel in a Newspaper
850
For a Libel in a Will
851
For a Libel Published in a Declaration
852
For Libel Imputing no Specific Offense or Imputing Want of Moral Conduct
853
Libel and Slander 839 Statement of the Claim Under the English RulesThe English Procedure Act
854
Character of Servants
855
Imputation in a Foreign Language
856
For Showing an Anonymous Letter
857
For a Libel on a Solicitor
858
For a Libel on an Architect in the Way of His Profession
859
For Words Imputing a Crime
860
For Slander of a Medical Man
861
For Slander of a Solicitor
862
For Words Imputing InsolvencySpecial Damages
863
For Words Not Actionable Without Proof of Special Dam ages
864
Slander of Property 857 Declaration for Words Spoken to a Person About to Hire Plaintiffs Ship that She was Broken and Unfit to Proceed
865
For a Libel on Goods Manufactured by AnotherPleas ReplicationJoinder in DemurrerInterrogatories
866
SLANDER OF TlTLE
867
Declaration at Common LawFor Procuring a Third Person to Attend a Public Auction Room and Slander Plaintiffs Title
868
Slander of Title to GoodsStatement of ClaimDefense
870
For a Libel in the Nature of Slander of Title
871
Statement of DefensesPleas at Common Law 862 The General IssueNon CulNot Guilty
873
Justification of Charge of Perjury
874
Justification of Charge of Fornication
875
Of the Truth of a Libel on an Attorney
876
For Sending a Letter to CommanderinChief in Order that the Plaintiff Might be Brought to a Courtmartial
877
For an imputation that the Plaintiff had been Guilty of Open ing Letters
878
For an Imputation that the Plaintiff had been Guilty of Perjury in an Answer in Chancery
879
Justification of a Slander of Property
881
Mitigation of Damages
882
A Traverse and an Objection in Point of Law
884
Bill of Particulars
885
Comment on Matters of Public InterestThe Same Defense and Reply
886
No SlanderInsufficient PublicationNo Conscious Publica tion and Reply
887
Words Spoken in Jest
888
A Justification
889
Justification of a Portion of a Libel and Reply
890
Absolute Privilege
891
Qualified Privilege
892
4 Advice to One About to Marry
893
8 Claim of Right and Reply
894
11 Members of the Same Committee
895
13 Vendor and Purchaser
896
15 Report of a Judgment Published as a Pamphlet
897
Statute of LimitationsReplicationRejoinder
898
Previous Action
899
Payment into Court
900
Payment into Court and Particulars
901
Notice
902
Absence of Malice and Negligence
903
CHAPTER XXIII
906
When Ordered on Plaintiffs Motion
907
IllustrationsDigest of Cases
908
CHAPTER XXIV
911
The Natural Order of the Proofs
912
Proof of the Plaintiffs Special Character and Extrinsic Matter
913
2 Where it is Specially Alleged
914
Strict Proof of Special Character Not Required
915
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
916
Proof of Publication
918
Evidence of Defendants Handwriting
920
SlanderProof of Publication
921
LibelProof of Publication
922
Secondary Evidence
923
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
924
Digest of English Cases
925
Proof that the Defamatory Matter Refers to the Plaintiff
930
Proof of Meaning of Defamatory Matter
933
Blakeman 31 Minn 396 368
934
Rule in New York
935
Evidence as to Effect of Words
936
Evidence of Plaintiff s Good Character
937
Proof of Falsity under the General Issue
940
Digest of English Cases
944
Evidence of Damages
948
Proof that the Special Damage was the Result of Defendants Act
949
Desertion of Places of Amusement
950
Digest of English Cases
952
What is Admissible in Aggravation of Damages
954
Digest of American Cases
955
Digest of English Cases
956
Defendants ProofsPlea of the General Issue Filed 947 Burden of Proof under the General Issue
957
Defendants Evidence under the Plea
958
Generally what the Defendant May Show under this Plea
960
Evidence Tending to Prove the Truth
961
IllustrationsDigest of American CasesWhat is Admissible under the General Issue
962
Plea of Justification Filed 955 The Plea with the General Issue
965
JustificationThe Truth a Defense in Civil Actions
966
Statutory and Constitutional Changes
967
The Justification Must be as Broad as the Charge
968
The Rule in Criminal ProsecutionsTruth in Justification
969
1 By a Preponderance of the Evidenoe
972
Evidence not Admissible under the Plea
973
VariancesA Variance Defined
977
Matters of Allegation and Description
978
2 Variance Immaterial
982
Digest of English Cases
984
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
985
Defendants Tongue No Slander
987
Evidence of Slanders Uttered by Defendant Against Third Persons
988
General Digest of American Cases
989
2 What Evidence is Not Admissible
995
3 Evidence of Character
998
4 The Burden of Proof
1001
Defendants ProofsGeneral Digest of American Cases
1004
CHAPTER XXV
1006
When it Will be Directed
1007
Taking the Case from the Jury
1008
982b Digest of English Cases
1010
CHAPTER XXVI
1012
General Damages
1014
9S4 The Subject Classified
1015
Digest of English Cases
1016
Substantial Damages
1017
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
1018
1019
1019
An Indiana Case Casey v
1021
Digest of American Cases
1022
Assessment of Damages
1024
The Province of the Jury
1025
Pecuniary Circumstances of Parties as Element of Damages
1026
P98 Costs and Counsel Fees
1027
Words Actionable if Special Damage Follows
1028
The Rule for Words not in Themselves Actionable without Proof of Special Damage
1029
Damages Arising from Words not Actionable in Themselves
1030
Second the Damage Must Have Actually Accrued
1031
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
1032
Digest of English Cases
1033
Classes of Words when Actionable
1034
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
1035
Proof of Special DamagesIn What Cases Essential
1036
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
1037
Digest of English Cases
1040
Special DamagesWords Actionable in Themselves
1043
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
1044
Digest of English Cases
1045
Special Damage Must be Specified in the Pleadings
1046
The Rule in Actions for Libel
1047
Application of the Rule
1048
A Massachusetts Case Cook v Cook 100 Mass 194
1049
Digest of American Cases
1050
Digest of English Cases
1051
Aggravation of Damages 1030 What May be Shown in Aggravation of Damages
1052
Extrinsic Matters in Aggravation of Damages
1053
Extent of Circulation May be Shown
1054
A Michigan Case Hitchcock v Moore 70 Mich 11214 Am St Rep 474 J
1055
Digest of English Cases
1059
The Rule where the Defendant Does not Justify
1060
What is not Admissible in Mitigation of DamagesDigest of American Cases
1064
Division of the Subject
1067
First General Bad Character of Plaintiff
1068
Bad Character Must Have Existed Previous to the Alleged Defamation
1069
Digest of English Cases
1071
Previous Publication by Others
1072
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
1073
Digest of English Cases
1074
Matters not Amounting to a Justification
1076
Liability of Third Persons
1078
Absence of Special Damage
1080
IllustrationsDigest of English Cases
1081
When Proper in Mitigation of Damages
1082
Digest of American Cases
1086
RetractionAmends and Apologies
1087
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
1089
Excessive Damages 1064 Excessive DamagesNew Trial
1090
Must Grossly Exceed what would be Adequate
1091
IllustrationsDigest of American CasesAmounts Held not Excessive
1092
Digest of English Cases
1103
Amounts Held to be Excessive
1107
Remoteness of Damaoes 1069 Damages too Remote
1110
A Massachusetts Case Dudley v Briggs 141 Mass 58255 Am Rep 4
1111
Digest of English Cases
1113
The Defamatory Words Must be the Predominating Cause of the Damage Claimed
1114
Acts of Third Persons
1115
Digest of English Cases
1116
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
1117
Exception to the Rule
1118
Inadequacy of Damages
1120
CHAPTER XXVII
1122
IllustrationsGeneral Digest of American Cases
1123
The Offense when Committed
1125
Class I
1126
Libels Tending to Injure the Administration of Public Justice
1127
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
1128
Digest of English Cases
1129
Blasphemy
1130
Heresy
1133
The English Law of Blasphemy
1134
IllustrationsDigest of English Cases
1142
The American Law of Blasphemy
1145
1 The Common Law
1146
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
1147
Liberty of the Press not to be Abridged
1148
IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
1150
Libels Tending to Blacken the Memory of the Dead
1151
IllustrationsDigest of English Cases
1152
Class IV
1153
IllustrationsDigest of American CasesDigest of English Cases
1154
Mill 2 Other Illegal Acts
1155
Law as Applied to Corporations
1156
Oral Defamation
1157
Publication of Libels under the Criminal Law
1158
CHAPTER XXVIII
1159
2 The Commencement
1162
3 The Statement
1163
4 The Conclusion 1117 IllustrationsDigest of American Cases
1164
Libels on Individuals
1169
2 For Publishing a Libel Imputing the Crime of Theft
1170
3 The Same Modified for Use in American Courts
1171
5 For Sending a Libelous Letter
1172
7 For Posting up a Handbill
1173
9 For Charging the Receiving of Stolen Goods
1174
11 For a Libel upon a Sheriff
1175
12 For a Libel upon a Justice of a Police Court
1176
13 For Attempting to Publish a Libel
1177
1162 1162
1258
1164
1278
Copyright

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