The Linkage Between Technology, Doctrine, and Weapons Innovation: Experimentation for Use
The theme of this paper is that the linkages between technical innovations and their incorporation in weapons and doctrine are strongly dependent on experiments that generate information about possibilities. The main argument is that a crucial step is required between the output of organized R & D and the formation of doctrine and weapons procurement decisions. This step involves experimentation in the use of the product. Today, when systematic, organized R & D can be so successful in producing a dazzling variety of potential technologies, subsystems, systems, and assorted improvements to existing weapons, the choice among these is the critical problem. Questions surrounding the use of these new things are loaded with the very strong uncertainties that we have come to accept in the technology development process itself. An experimental approach to use is a necessary concomitant to the successful incorporation of technology and to the derivation of doctrine that will govern its use. Indeed, the notion of innovation is just as aptly applied to use as it is to technology. The linkages between technology and use, therefore, require careful and explicit attention.
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AIMVAL/ACEVAL Air Force air-to-air missile aircraft aircraft-missile ambiguity American tank analytical approach artillery assumptions attempts ballistic missile battlefield behavior Bernard Brodie Bonen certainty chaos class of uncertainty combat experience commanders complex organizations concept dealing with strong Department of Defense despite effect Eisenhower embedded in known equipment evidence example experimental brigade feedback fighter firms French ganization German historical ideas industry infantry innovative technologies innovative weapons large number machine-gun Mahan marginal improvement Marshall means for dealing MILITARY INNOVATION mission Ml6 Rifle Morison concluded operational testing operations research Ordnance outcomes paper experiments patterns Patton's experience percent lasted periment possible Probability distributions problems product development prototype Rand Corporation require routines Santa Monica Sherman Soviet Union stage strategies for dealing strong uncertainties sub-organizations success systems analysis tactics tech techniques theories trials uncertain uncertainties of innovation United States Air United States Army United States Navy warfare