## A Source Book in Mathematics, Volume 3The writings of Newton, Leibniz, Pascal, Riemann, Bernoulli, and others in a comprehensive selection of 125 treatises dating from the Renaissance to the late 19th century — most unavailable elsewhere. Grouped in five sections: Number; Algebra; Geometry; Probability; and Calculus, Functions, and Quaternions. Includes a biographical-historical introduction for each article. |

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### Contents

FIELD OF NUMBER | 1 |

FIELD OF ALGEBRA | 201 |

FIELD OF GEOMETRY | 307 |

FIELD OF PROBABILITY | 546 |

FIELD OF THE CALCULUS FUNCTIONS QUATERNIONS | 605 |

### Common terms and phrases

algebraic arithmetic Bernoulli calculus calculus of variations circle coefficients complex numbers conic section contained corresponding cube curvature curve David Eugene Smith degree denote derived Desargues Descartes determined differential equation divided division equal example expression Fermat figure finite Florian Cajori fluxions follows formula four frustum function Gauss geometry given gives Hence infinite series infinitely integral intersection Jean Bernoulli Leibniz limits linear complex lines of curvature logarithms mathematics method multiplied negative parallel partial differential equation perpendicular plane positive preceding prime number problem Professor proof properties proportion proposition prosthaphaeresis quantities Quaternions quotient radius ratio rational functions rational numbers reciprocal relations result right angle right lines root side sine solution space sphere square straight line substituted subtraction surface tangent theorem theory third tion transformation Translated triangle unity unknowns variables zero