A Handbook of Engine and Boiler Trials and of the Indicator and Prony Brake: For Engineers and Technical Schools

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J. Wiley and sons, 1890 - Engines - 514 pages
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Contents

Cylindercondensation and Leakage
253
CHAPTER VII
262
Gross and Net PowerTransmitting Dynamometers
264
Calibrating the Transmission Dynamometer
267
Pronys Dynamometric Brake
269
Designing a Dynamometric BrakeVarious Forms
272
Data derived by Use of the Dynamometer
282
CHAPTER VIII
285
Engine and Boiler Trials
287
Fitting up Engine for TrialThe Two Systems of Trial
294
Methods of Trial
296
The Farey and Donkin System
298
Trials of Gasengines
303
Simple and Binary Vapor Engine Trials 1
304
Special Conditions of Gas and Vapor Engine Trials
305
The Scheme of the Trial
309
Competitive EnginetrialsRegulations
310
Regulations for Competitive Boiler and Pump Trials
316
Quality of SteamSmoke Prevention
323
CHAPTER IX
331
Examples of Stationary Engine Test
332
Deductions and Conclusions
346
Conclusions therefrom 36r 98 Reports on Locomotive Trials
364
General Results and Conclusions
375
Marineengine Performance
380
Graphical RecordsDeductions
393
Pumpingengine and Boiler TestsCentrifugal Pump
404
Illustrations of the Farey and Donkin System
424
Efficiency and Economy of Fuel 41
436
Vaporengine Trials
451
General ConclusionsThe Outlook
455
APPENDIX Table I Numerical Constants Circles Areas etc
463
Thermometer Scales
484
Volumes and Densities of Water
486
Metric Steam Table
487
Metric Steam and Work Table
490
Steam TablesBritish Units
492
Stored Energy in Steam and Water
499
Formulas for Properties of Steam
501
Factors of Evaporation
503
Composition of Fuels
504
Horsepower Constants
506
go Standard Boilertrials 322
511
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Page 51 - In tests for purposes of scientific research, in which the determination of all the variables entering into the test is desired, certain observations should be made which are in general unnecessary for ordinary tests.
Page 47 - IV. Have an understanding with the parties in whose interest the test is to be made as to the character of the coal to be used. The coal must be dry, or, if wet, a sample must be dried carefully and a determination of the amount of moisture in the coal made, and the calculation of the results of the test corrected accordingly.
Page 49 - The boiler being thoroughly heated by a preliminary run, the fires are to be burned low and well cleaned. Note the amount of coal left on the grate as nearly as it can be estimated; note the pressure of steam and the water level.
Page 291 - The engine test is to continue at least ten hours. At its expiration the feed-pump is again momentarily stopped, care having been taken to have the water slightly higher than at the start, and the water in the lower tank is brought to the mark. When the water in the gauge-glass has settled to the point which it occupied at the beginning, the time of day and the indication of the counter are observed, together with the number of tanks of water thus far supplied, and the engine test is held to be finished.
Page 50 - The ash-pits should be thoroughly cleaned at once after starting. Before the end of the test the fires should be burned low, just as before the start, and the fires cleaned in such a manner as to leave the same amount of fire, and in the same condition, on the grates as at the start. The water-level and...
Page 50 - The boiler should be run continuously, without stopping for meal-times or for rise or fall of pressure of steam due to change of demand for steam. The draught, being adjusted to the rate of evaporation or combustion desired before the test is begun, should be retained constant during the test, by means of the damper.
Page 49 - The conditions of the boiler and furnace in all respects should be, as nearly as possible, the same at the end as at the beginning of the test. The steam pressure should be the same ; the water level the same ; the fire upon the grates should be the same in quantity and condition ; and the walls, flues, etc., should be of the same temperature Two methods of obtaining the desired equality of conditions of the fire may be used, viz.
Page 51 - ... should not be delivered until the previous one has all been fired. The time required to consume each portion should be noted, the time being recorded at the instant of firing the last of each portion. It is desirable that at the same time the amount of water fed into the boiler should be accurately noted and recorded, including the height of the water in the boiler, and the average pressure of steam and temperature of feed during the time. By thus recording the amount of water evaporated by successive...
Page 52 - These are the measurement of the air supply, the determination of its contained moisture, the determination of the amount of heat lost by radiation, of the amount of infiltration of air through the setting, and (by condensation of all the steam made by the boiler) of the total heat imparted to the water.
Page 48 - Establish the correctness of all apparatus used in the test for weighing and measuring. These are: (1) Scales for weighing coal, ashes, and water. (2) Tanks or water meters for measuring water. Water meters, as a rule, should only be used as a check on other measurements. For accurate work the water should be weighed or measured in a tank.

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