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actual amount apparatus ashes average barrel boiler boiler-pressure brake British thermal units calorimeter cent chimney coil combustion compound engine condenser cord cubic cubic foot curve cut-off cylinder determined diagram diameter draught dynamometer efficiency exhibit Fahr Fahrenheit feed-water feet fire flue foot-pounds friction fuel furnace gases gauge grate heating-surface horse-power per hour indicated horse-power instrument jacket latent heat length load mean effective pressure measured method minute moisture motion observed obtained pipe piston pound of coal pounds of water pounds per square proportion pulley pump pyrometer quantity of steam ratio revolutions revolutions per minute specific heat speed spring square inch standard steam-boiler steam-engine steam-pipe steam-pressure stroke superheated supplied surface taken tank temperature thermal units thermometer tion total heat trial tubes usually valve variation volume waste water evaporated weight of steam weight of water
Page 51 - In tests for purposes of scientific research, in which the determination of all the variables entering into the test is desired, certain observations should be made which are in general unnecessary for ordinary tests.
Page 47 - IV. Have an understanding with the parties in whose interest the test is to be made as to the character of the coal to be used. The coal must be dry, or, if wet, a sample must be dried carefully and a determination of the amount of moisture in the coal made, and the calculation of the results of the test corrected accordingly.
Page 49 - The boiler being thoroughly heated by a preliminary run, the fires are to be burned low and well cleaned. Note the amount of coal left on the grate as nearly as it can be estimated; note the pressure of steam and the water level.
Page 291 - The engine test is to continue at least ten hours. At its expiration the feed-pump is again momentarily stopped, care having been taken to have the water slightly higher than at the start, and the water in the lower tank is brought to the mark. When the water in the gauge-glass has settled to the point which it occupied at the beginning, the time of day and the indication of the counter are observed, together with the number of tanks of water thus far supplied, and the engine test is held to be finished.
Page 50 - The ash-pits should be thoroughly cleaned at once after starting. Before the end of the test the fires should be burned low, just as before the start, and the fires cleaned in such a manner as to leave the same amount of fire, and in the same condition, on the grates as at the start. The water-level and...
Page 50 - The boiler should be run continuously, without stopping for meal-times or for rise or fall of pressure of steam due to change of demand for steam. The draught, being adjusted to the rate of evaporation or combustion desired before the test is begun, should be retained constant during the test, by means of the damper.
Page 49 - The conditions of the boiler and furnace in all respects should be, as nearly as possible, the same at the end as at the beginning of the test. The steam pressure should be the same ; the water level the same ; the fire upon the grates should be the same in quantity and condition ; and the walls, flues, etc., should be of the same temperature Two methods of obtaining the desired equality of conditions of the fire may be used, viz.
Page 51 - ... should not be delivered until the previous one has all been fired. The time required to consume each portion should be noted, the time being recorded at the instant of firing the last of each portion. It is desirable that at the same time the amount of water fed into the boiler should be accurately noted and recorded, including the height of the water in the boiler, and the average pressure of steam and temperature of feed during the time. By thus recording the amount of water evaporated by successive...
Page 52 - These are the measurement of the air supply, the determination of its contained moisture, the determination of the amount of heat lost by radiation, of the amount of infiltration of air through the setting, and (by condensation of all the steam made by the boiler) of the total heat imparted to the water.
Page 48 - Establish the correctness of all apparatus used in the test for weighing and measuring. These are: (1) Scales for weighing coal, ashes, and water. (2) Tanks or water meters for measuring water. Water meters, as a rule, should only be used as a check on other measurements. For accurate work the water should be weighed or measured in a tank.