The Advent Of Netwar
Rand Corporation, 1996 - Communications, Military - 127 pages
This briefing elucidates a concept-'netwar'-that we mentioned in an earlier article on 'cyberwar.' Whereas the latter term refers primarily to information-based military operations designed to disrupt an adversary, netwar relates to lower-intensity conflict at the societal end of the spectrum. In our view, netwar is likely to be the more prevalent and challenging form of conflict in the emerging information age and merits careful and sustained study. In terms of conduct, netwar refers to conflicts in which a combatant is organized along networked lines or employs networks for operational control and other communications. The organizational forms that netwar actors adopt may resemble 'stars' that have some centralized elements, or 'chains' that are linear, but the major design will tend to be 'all-channel' networks in which each principal node of an organization can communicate and interact with every other node. Further, netwar actors may develop hybrid structures that incorporate elements of some or all of the above designs in varied ways. Strong netwar actors will have not only organizational, but also doctrinal, technological, and social layers that emphasize network designs. Netwar actors may make heavy use of cyberspace, but that is not their defining characteristic-they subsist and operate in areas beyond it.
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activists adversaries all-channel areas attack battle beneﬁt brieﬁng cells central challenge chart Chechen chess Chiapas civil society Colombia communications concept conﬂict and crime coordinate counternetwar criminal organizations cyberspace cyberwar decentralized defensive netwar deﬁne democracy develop difﬁculty doctrine effects emerging ethnonationalists example EZLN ﬁght ﬁghting ﬁrst ﬁt forces forms of organization framework global groups heterarchic hierarchical implications increasingly information age information revolution Information warfare information-age institutions insurgency interagency issues Kevin Mitnick kriegsspiel Leaderless Resistance Maﬁa market form Mexico military militia modes of conﬂict movements nation-state netwar actors netwarriors network designs network form NGOs nodes nonstate actors offense and defense operations opponent organizational pieces pirates political potential problems protagonists realm reﬂect rise of network signiﬁcance social netwar speciﬁc spectrum strategy structures Sun Tzu T+I+M tactical TCOs technologies terrorism terrorist threats tional traditional transnational criminal tribal types United warfare Zapatista
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Internet and Society: Social Theory in the Information Age
No preview available - 2008