## The Hardness of MetalsThis book is an attempt to explain hardness measurements of metals in terms of some of their more basic physical properties. It does not deal with the atomic and crystalline mechanism of elastic or plastic deformation, but starting with the elastic and plastic characteristics it shows that the hardness behaviour of metals may be expressed in terms of these characteristics. It is hoped that this presentation will provide, for physicists, engineers, and metallurgists, a better understanding of what hardness means and what hardness measurements imply. The book places an emphasis on the physical concepts involved, so that the non-mathematical reader may grasp and appreciate the general physical picture without needing to follow the more detailed treatment. From reviews: 'This book is clearly written and illustrated and can be warmly recommended to all those who are interested in the hardness of metals. It is without doubt the most important work on the subject to have appeared for many years.' Nature 'It is in its fresh and unusual approach to the subject that this book will appeal most. Work from a very wide field is collected and critically discussed, and the author is to be congratulated on a volume which should appeal to metallurgists, engineers and physicists.' Research '...this is a book which the mechanical testing engineer will wish to have ready to hand.' British Journal of Applied Physics 'The story makes fascinating reading, not only because of the wealth of new explanations it contains, but also because of the author's skill in presenting his arguments so clearly and simply. It is extraordinary how far he is able to go on the most elementary of mathematics.' Institute of Metals Metallurgical Abstracts 'Has succeeded in raising the subject of hardness from its background of empiricism to that of scientific theory....This book is recommended for the scientist who...is concerned with the indentation of solids....The mathematics is simple and the style is easy to read.' Applied Mechanics Reviews |

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### Contents

INTRODUCTION | 2 |

DEFORMATION AND INDENTATION | 19 |

DEFORMATION OF METALS BY SPHERICAL | 44 |

DEFORMATION OF METALS BY SPHERICAL | 67 |

DEFORMATION OF METALS BY SPHERICAL | 84 |

HARDNESS MEASUREMENTS WITH CONI | 95 |

DYNAMIC OR REBOUND HARDNESS | 115 |

AREA OF CONTACT BETWEEN SOLIDS | 141 |

Brinell hardness | 155 |

INDEX Name | 172 |

### Common terms and phrases

annealed annealed copper anvils approximately area of contact asperities assume calculated cent Chapter chordal diameter coefficient of restitution collision compression cone constant diamond dynamic hardness dynamic yield pressure effect elastic collision elastic deformation elastic limit elastic recovery elastic stresses equal equation flat surface friction full plasticity geometrically similar hard steel hardened harder metals hardness measurements Hardness of Metals height of rebound Huber-Mises criterion ideally plastic metal increase indentation process indium Ishlinsky Knoop linear strain material mean pressure metal surface Meyer hardness Meyer index Meyer's law mild steel O'Neill obtained onset of plastic plastic deformation occurs plastic flow plastic yielding Poisson's ratio Proc produce plastic profilometer radius of curvature ratio region of contact relation semi-angle shear stress shown in Fig slip-line softer metal specimen sphere steel ball stress-strain curve Tabor tion tungsten carbide two-dimensional ultimate tensile strength velocity of impact Vickers hardness number work-hardening yield stress Young's modulus