Treatise on Architecture: Including the Arts of Construction, Building, Stone-masonry, Arch, Carpentry, Roof, Joinery, and Strength of Materials

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Arthur Ashpitel, William Hosking
A. and C. Black, 1867 - Architecture - 311 pages
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Page 74 - The two great rules for design are these : 1st, that there should be no features about a building which are not necessary for convenience, construction, or propriety; 2nd, that all ornament should consist of enrichment of the essential construction of the building.
Page 84 - I can hardly think it practicable to make a single room so capacious with pews and galleries as to hold above 2000 persons, and all to hear the service, and both to hear distinctly and see the preacher.
Page 293 - ¿ition established by this theory is, that the strength of prismática! columns is in the direct quadruplicate ratio of their diameters, and the inverse duplicate ratio of their lengths. He prosecuted this subject in the Petersburg Commentaries for 1778, confirming his former theory. We do not find that any other author has bestowed much attention on it, all seeming to acquiesce in the determinations of Euler, and to consider the subject as of very great difficulty, requiring the application of...
Page 223 - Fig. 9. and 10. exhibit the most approved form of a scarf, whether for a tie or for a post. The key represented in the middle is not essentially necessary ; the two pieces might simply meet square there. This form, without a key, needs no bolts (although they strengthen it greatly) ; but, if worked very true and close, and with square abutments, will hold together, and will resist bending in any direction. But the key is an ingenious and a very great improvement, and will force the parts together...
Page 270 - ... of manufactures, and in particular so distinguished for its improvements in machinery of every kind, it is somewhat singular that no writer has treated it in the detail which its importance and difficulty demands. The man of science who visits our great manufactories is delighted with the ingenuity which he observes in every part, the innumerable inventions which come even from individual artisans, and the determined purpose of improvement and refinement which he sees in every workshop.
Page 294 - Experiments on the transverse strength of bodies are easily made, and accordingly are very numerous, especially those made on timber, which is the case most common and most interesting. But in this great number of experiments there are very few from which we can draw much practical information. The experiments have in general been made on such small scantlings, that the unavoidable natural inequalities bear too great a proportion to the strength of the whole piece. Accordingly, when we compare the...
Page 131 - ... Wharf and quay walls, and the revetment walls of military works, may require a fair face, unbroken by projections in front, but this is not the case with retaining walls for roads and railways, where a long line of projecting buttresses would be unobjectionable, the counterforts becoming buttresses and merely changing places with the wall. On account of the common practice of battering the faces of retaining walls in curved lines and of radiating the^ beds of the brickwork composing them from...
Page 103 - Gable. — When a roof is not hipped or returned on itself at the ends, its ends are stopped by carrying up the walls under them in the triangular form of the roof itself. This is called the gable, or, in the case of the ornamental and ornamented gable, the pediment. Of necessity, gables follow the angles of the slope of the roof, and differ in the various styles.
Page 274 - ... in the transverse direction, and since this bulging out is in opposition to the transverse forces of attraction, it must employ some part of the compressing force. And the common appearances are in perfect uniformity with this conception of things. When we press a bit of dryish clay, it swells out and cracks transversely. When a pillar of wood is overloaded, it swells out, and small crevices appear in the direction of the fibres. After this it will not bear half of the load. This the carpenters...
Page 226 - ... of 6 by 4 inches. This is a beautiful roof, and contains less timber than most others of the same dimensions. The parts are all disposed with great judgment. Perhaps the iron rod is unnecessary ; but it adds great stiffness to the whole.

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