Human Variation: Races, Types, and Ethnic Groups
Discarding the concept of race as misleading, this text examines the biological basis for human variation and biological diversity at the population level. This is appropriate because of the many ways in which humans can adapt to environments, organize activities, and regulate breeding behaviour. The biological diversity of the human species is a reflection of these adaptations. This text reviews the history, behaviour, demographic structure of contemporary populations, their effects on the distribution of major genetic polymorphisms, and distinctions of body form, size and skin colour.
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abnormal adaptation adult African Americans allele altitude amino acid antibodies antigens areas Asian average behavior beta globin biological birth blood group blood types body cause century chromosome complex contrast correlation cranial described diet differences disease distribution diversity environment environmental enzyme ethnic groups Europe European example Exon factors female Figure function gene frequencies genetic genome genotypes geographic growth haplotypes heat hemoglobin heterozygote Homo sapiens human identified increase individuals infants influence inherited introns loci lower major malaria males markers mating measured melanin menarche metabolic molecules mRNA mutations Native Americans normal nucleotides occur oxygen parents percent persons phenotypes pigment polymorphisms populations production protein Pygmies Quechua race racial range recessive red blood cells regions restriction enzymes sample selection sequences sickle skin color social species structure studies synthesis Table temperature thalassemia tion tissues traits tropical variability variation vary vitamin weight