Nitrogen-fixing Leguminous Symbioses

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Michael J. Dilworth, Euan K. James, Janet I. Sprent, William E. Newton
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 18, 2008 - Science - 403 pages
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This book is the stand-alone final volume of a comprehensive series covering the basic and applied science relating to nitrogen fixation. It addresses the most important nitrogen-fixing symbiosis of all – that between legumes and their root-nodule bacteria – and therefore deals with the properties and behaviour of both macro- and micro-symbiont. The coverage is comprehensive, beginning with the extent of the symbiosis and how it may have arisen in the geological past. It considers how legumes select the root-nodule bacteria they allow to form nodules on their roots and the intricate series of signals to be exchanged between legume and bacteria for infection to occur. The immense progress in understanding the genetic systems in the bacteria necessary for nodulation is now being replicated in a rapidly increasing understanding of the required systems in the legumes. The cell biology of the processes of both infection and nodule development is analysed and leads to a parallel assessment of the biochemical processes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism required for successful nitroogen fixation by the symbiotic bacteroid. Attention is given to the ways in which the nodule has solved the conundrum of providing enough O2 for energy generation to drive nitrogen fixation without either inactivating the O2-sensitive nitrogenase or creating damaging reactive oxygen species. The volume also covers the basic physiology of the variety of root-nodule bacteria infecting legumes, as well as looking at the renewed controversy about the chemical form(s) of nitrogen exported to the legume. Successful exploitation of the legume symbiosis in agriculture, horticulture, and forestry demands an understanding of the ecology of the root-nodule bacteria – particularly what makes for a successful inoculant strain for legume introduction to agricultural systems. Then, there is a requirement for inoculation technology to both successfully deliver viable bacteria to the root surface and facilitate nodulation. These practical aspects are thoroughly covered in the volume, with a final chapter assessing how the massive amount of recent information can be exploited in matching host and microsymbiont for the wide variety of environments in which they are needed in our production systems.

 

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Contents

Ecology of RootNodule Bacteria of Legumes
38
The Problem 60 3 Explaining Cooperation The Hypothesis 61 4 Cheating and Mixed Nodules 70 5 Future Directions 71 6 Conclusion 72 Acknowle...
73
Inoculation Technology for Legumes
77
Flavonoid
116
Cell Biology of Nodule Infection and Development
153
The Role
169
Nitrogen Fixation
177
A Way to Unravel Molecular Mechanisms Controlling the Rhizobiallegume Symbiosis
191
Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Legume Nodules C P Vance
293
Nodule Carbon Metabolism
296
Sucrose Synthase
297
Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase
299
Carbonic Anhydrase
300
Malate Dehydrogenase
301
Initial Assimilation of FixedN
302
Glutamine Synthetase
305

P Smit and T Bisseling 191 1 Introduction 191 2 Model Legumes
192
The DMI Proteins
194
Nature of the Nod Factor Receptors
199
response Factors
202
responsive Factor
203
Legume Genomics Relevant to N2 Fixation L Schauser M Udvardi S Tabata and J Stougaard
211
Genomes
212
Transcriptome Analysis
219
Proteomics
223
Metabolomics
226
Genetic Analysis Using Genomics
228
Comparative Genomics
230
Conclusions
233
Physiology of Rootnodule Bacteria P S Poole M F Hynes A W B Johnston R P Tiwari W G Reeve and J A Downie
241
Introduction to Central Metabolism
242
Metabolism and the Environment
251
Micronutrition Metals and Vitamins
254
Environmental Responses of Rhizobia
259
Changes in Gene Expression in Bacteroids
266
Stress Responses in Rhizobia
267
References
276
Glutamate Synthase
306
Aspartate Aminotransferase
308
Asparagine Synthetase
309
Ureide Biosynthesis
310
Genomic Insights
313
Overview
315
Oxygen Diffusion Production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species and Antioxidants in Legume Nodules F R Minchin E K James and M Becana
321
Infected Zone Control 341 7 Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Nodules 342
324
Structure of the Cortical Oxygen Diffusion Barrier
327
Development of the Cortical Oxygen Diffusion Barrier
336
Regulation of the Cortical Oxygen Diffusion Barrier
338
Prospects for the Future Use of Legumes J G Howieson R J Yates K J Foster D Real and R B Besier
363
Current and Past Legumeusage Patterns
365
New Uses for Legumes
368
Matching Legumes and the Symbiosis to Edaphic and Economic Parameters
380
Utilising the Basic Advances
384
Conclusions
386
References
387
Subject Index
395
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