A Practical Grammar of the Turkish Language (as Spoken and Written): With Exercises for Translation Into Turkish, Quotations from Turkish Authors Illustrating Turkish Syntax and Composition, and Such Rules of the Arabic and Persian Grammars as Have Been Adopted by the Osmanlis, the Pronunciation Being Given in English Letters Throughout
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able to love action active participle adjective Adverbs aorist Arabic words beautiful benim chok cJjj Complex Conjugation Conjugation consent razl Constantinople corresponds dative dddm Derived Form edip English etmek euphony evimiz Example EXERCISE expressed father form their plural formed by adding genitive gerund ghibi ghiun ghiuzel hast house I think ichin idim iken indicates Indicative Mood interrogative kendi kill katl king letter negative oldou olmak olounmak olour omitted optative passive participle Perfect Persian Persian nouns person plural piastres plural according possessive affixes postpositions prepositions present pretty pronominal affixes pronounced pronunciation razi relative pronoun root sometimes sora speak syllable tenses termination third person singular thou Turkish language Turks verb end verbal noun vowel vowel sound Words which form write written yazmak yogh
Page 1 - Most of the letters have four forms in writing, depending on whether they occur at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a word or whether they stand separately.
Page 278 - ArabicEnglish and English-Arabic Dictionary now in existence. " On the whole the work is a most acceptable contribution to Oriental literature ; and the English and Arabic part especially will be an invaluable aid to travellers in the East, and to all Englishmen who have occasion to study Arabic.
Page 185 - ... (fern. nom. pi.), great books. There is no change in form to express degrees of comparison, but the comparative is expressed by putting the word with which the comparison is made in the ablative (by adding the postposition -se) : wuh bard hai, he is great (lit., he great is) ; wuh sultdn-se bard hai, he is greater than a king (lit., he king-than great is).
Page 9 - J_<r~*iJ! (the sun) is pronounced es-shems, and not el-shems; t_a_..n!\ (the summer) is pronounced es-satf, not el-sdif ; clAs=i!! en-ncjat (the salvation), not el-nejat. Of the Laws of Euphony in Pronouncing Turkish. 56. A very remarkable peculiarity of Turkish is the attention paid to euphony in pronunciation, and the changes of the sounds of vowels and consonants which take place in consequence. Thus the collision of hard and soft letters in the same word is always avoided, and when one declines...
Page xv - ... that rude and early people. Even at that early period, the Sun, in the sign of Aries, was a leading feature of the religion of the primitive Aryan people. It was on account of the fact of the Sun's apparent movement from east to west, says the spirit of Salt, that the Asiatic peoples usually wrote from right to left instead of from left to right as we do. It is equally certain that the Essenes, who were the primitive Christians, worshipped the Sun, and always bowed or knelt toward the east in...
Page 169 - Turkish way of indicating possession of one thing by another, or of rendering "of" in English (see 526, 529), the Persian method is used, especially when the words employed are either Arabic or Persian. 633. This consists simply in putting the name of the possessor first, and the name of the thing possessed after it. In pronouncing these nouns the sound of i is introduced after the first, if its end is a consonant. Example...
Page 54 - The past conditional is formed by adding *J^ cJo^ >-$&3\ &c. to the third person singular of the present conditional. * . The Number and Person of the Verb. 194. Verbs, like nouns, have two numbers, the singular and the plural. They have three persons, which remain invariable, whatever may be the gender of the nominative. The persons of each number are formed from the third person singular, to which certain endings are added. The first person singular of all tenses is formed by adding * or *j to...
Page 45 - I have opened, thou hast opened," &c., are generally considered to correspond to another form which we give below ; but this form can only be used correctly when there is doubt or uncertainty, and when the speaker means to state that he believes what he says, but cannot vouch for it, achmishtz, we have opened achmishs'iriiz.