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VACUUM SYSTEM COMPONENTS
A New Design for Ultrahigh Vacuum ValvesJames Wishart and George H Bancroft
A Large Bakeable Ultrahigh Vacuum ValveW B Parker and J T Mark
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adsorbed adsorption anode aperture argon atoms baked Bayard-Alpert gauge bell jar bombardment bulb calibration carbon cent chemical cold cathode condenser constant cooled copper crystal curve decrease degassing deposition diameter diffraction diffusion pump dynode effect electrical electron current emission energy engine equation evaporation experimental filament fluid frequency gases gasket getter glass grid heat helium high vacuum hydrogen increase ion collector ion current ion pump ionization gauge liquid nitrogen low pressure magnetic field mass spectrometer material McLeod gauge mercury metal method molecular molecules nickel obtained oil diffusion pump omegatron operation outgassing oxygen partial pressure peak Phys potential pressure measurement pumping speed pumping system quartz range ratio sample seal sensitivity shown in Fig sputtering yield stainless steel steam ejector substrate surface technique temperature thermocouple thin films tion titanium Torr tungsten ultra-high vacuum vacuum chamber Vacuum Symposium Transactions vacuum system valve voltage wire X-ray