## Thermal PhysicsCONGRATULATIONS TO HERBERT KROEMER, 2000 NOBEL LAUREATE FOR PHYSICSFor upper-division courses in thermodynamics or statistical mechanics, Kittel and Kroemer offers a modern approach to thermal physics that is based on the idea that all physical systems can be described in terms of their discrete quantum states, rather than drawing on 19th-century classical mechanics concepts. |

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### Contents

Entropy and Temperature | 28 |

TEMPERATURE | 41 |

Integrated Deviation | 54 |

Chapter 4 | 78 |

Chapter 5 | 100 |

Chapter 6 | 298 |

Chapter 7 | 312 |

Chapter 13 | 328 |

Appendix D | 459 |

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### Common terms and phrases

accessible approximation assume atoms average band becomes bosons calculated called Chapter chemical potential classical component composition concentration condition conduction Consider constant cooling curve defined definition denote density dependence derivative diffusive distribution distribution function effect electrical electrons entropy equal equation equilibrium Example excited expansion expression factor Fermi Figure flow flux free energy frequency function Gibbs given gives ground heat heat capacity helium higher hole ideal gas identical increase independent integral internal limit liquid lower magnetic magnetic field mass mean mixture molecules negative number of particles obtain occupancy orbital particles phase photons physics positive pressure probability problem properties quantity quantum radiation range relation reservoir result reversible semiconductor Show side solid solution spin Table temperature term thermal transfer transition unit vapor volume zero