Separate Roads to Feminism: Black, Chicana, and White Feminist Movements in America's Second Wave

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Cambridge University Press, 2004 - Social Science - 271 pages
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This book is about the development of white women's liberation, Black feminism and Chicana feminism in the 1960's and 1970's, the era known as the "second wave" of U.S. feminist protest. The author explores the ways that feminist movements emerged from the Civil Rights/ Black Liberation movement, the Chicano movement, and the white left, and the processes that went into political decisions made by feminists to organize autonomously, and in their own racial/ethnic organizations. The book traces the effects that inequality had on the possibilities for feminist unity; the way that loyalties to the "men left behind" impacted feminist organizing, particularly by Black and Chicana feminists; and explores how ideas common throughout the left at the time shaped feminist organizing.
 

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Contents

The Emergence and Development of RacialEthnic Feminisms in the 1960s and 1970s
1
The Whitewashing of the Second Wave
6
Recasting the Second Wave
11
Feminist Emergences Intersectionality and Social Movement Theory
14
Methodological ConsiderationsThe Plan of the Book
17
To Whom Do You Refer? Structure and the Situated Feminist
24
How Much Is Enough? The Relatively Deprived as Challengers
25
Inequality and the Positing of a Postwar TransracialEthnic Middle Class
31
We Called Ourselves Feministas Intramovement Experience and the Emergence of Chicana Feminism
129
Chicanas in the Chicano Movement of the 1960s and 1970s
132
Early Organizing by Chicana Feminists
138
The 1971 Houston Conferencia de Mujeres por la RazaFirst National Chicana Conference
145
Challenging the Machismo in Chicanismo and Other Chicana Feminist Concerns
150
Chicana Feminist Organizations in the 1970s and the Problem of Backlash
154
The Historical Chicana Feminist and the Need to Remake the Political Family
159
Sympathies Versus Sisterhood
166

To Whom Do You Compare? The Salience of RaceEthnicity plus Class
42
Structure Awareness and the Background to the Making of Organizationally Distinct RacialEthnic Feminisms
45
The Fourth World Is Born Intramovement Experience Oppositional Political Communities and the Emergence of the White Womens Liberation Mov...
47
Dynamics of Facilitation and Constraint
49
Redefining Liberation
52
The Debate over Separation and Autonomy
56
New Left Hostility to a New Feminist Movement
62
A New Audience for Organizing
67
Creating an Autonomous Movement
70
Reforming a Community Versus Forming One
73
The Vanguard Center Intramovement Experience and the Emergence of Black Feminism
76
Where Were the Black Feminists? Looking in the Wrong Places
77
Black Women and Changes in the Civil Rights Movement
80
Early Organizations
86
The Black Woman Black Liberation and MiddleClass Style
94
Responses to White Womens Liberation
98
Questions of Autonomy
103
The Influence of the Vanguard Center
127
Chicana Feminist Organizing Through the 1970s
172
Organizationally Distinct Chicana Feminism in the Second Wave
175
Organizing Ones Own The Competitive Social Movement Sector and the Rise of Organizationally Distinct Feminist Movements
178
The Competitive Social Movement Sector
181
The Social Movement Economy and the Feminist Threat
183
White Womens Liberation and Universal Sisterhood
188
African American and Chicana Feminist Responses
195
An Ethos and Its Origins
200
The Legacy of Intermovement Politics and Possibilities for Feminist Organizing
211
Feminists on Their Own and for Their Own Revisiting and ReVisioning SecondWave Feminisms
214
SecondWave Feminisms and Theoretical Considerations
216
The Legacy of SecondWave Feminisms and Coalition Making
219
Last Words
225
The InterviewsLiving After the Second Wave
227
References
231
Index
261
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