Augmentation of Brain Function: Facts, Fiction and Controversy: Volume II: Neurostimulation and Pharmacological Approaches

Front Cover
Ioan Opris, Manuel F. Casanova, Mikhail Lebedev
Frontiers Media SA, Sep 14, 2018 - 403 pages

 The Volume II is entitled “Neurostimulation and pharmacological approaches”. This volume describes augmentation approaches, where improvements in brain functions are achieved by modulation of brain circuits with electrical or optical stimulation, or pharmacological agents. Activation of brain circuits with electrical currents is a conventional approach that includes such methods as (i) intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), (ii) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and (iii) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). tDCS and TMS are often regarded as noninvasive methods. Yet, they may induce long-lasting plastic changes in the brain. This is why some authors consider the term “noninvasive” misleading when used to describe these and other techniques, such as stimulation with transcranial lasers. The volume further discusses the potential of neurostimulation as a research tool in the studies of perception, cognition and behavior. Additionally, a notion is expressed that brain augmentation with stimulation cannot be described as a net zero sum proposition, where brain resources are reallocated in such a way that gains in one function are balanced by costs elsewhere. In recent years, optogenetic methods have received an increased attention, and several articles in Volume II cover different aspects of this technique. While new optogenetic methods are being developed, the classical electrical stimulation has already been utilized in many clinically relevant applications, like the vestibular implant and tactile neuroprosthesis that utilizes ICMS. As a peculiar usage of neurostimulation and pharmacological methods, Volume II includes several articles on augmented memory. Memory prostheses are a popular recent development in the stimulation-based BMIs. For example, in a hippocampal memory prosthesis, memory content is extracted from hippocampal activity using a multiple-input, multiple-output non-linear dynamical model. As to the pharmacological approaches to augmenting memory and cognition, the pros and cons of using nootropic drugs are discussed.

 

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Contents

A practical application of text mining to literature on cognitive rehabilitation and enhancement through neurostimulation
7
Functional Electrical Stimulation Alters the Postural Component of Locomotor Activity in Healthy Humans
21
the relevance of individual differences in responsiveness to transcranial electrical stimulation
28
five important issues we arent discussing but probably should be
40
expanding vistas for neurocognitive augmentation
48
a causal role for the anterior intraparietal sulcus
62
Activation and inhibition of posterior parietal cortex have bidirectional effects on spatial errors following interruptions
71
Weighing the Cost and Benefit of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Different Reading Subskills
79
a survey of the approaches to remembering more
212
from clinical research to animal models
217
How to build better memory training games
226
a Monte Carlo simulation
233
Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall
237
Working memory training improves emotional states of healthy individuals
247
Adaptation to elastic loads and BMI robot controls during rat locomotion examined with pointprocess GLMs
261
Pharmacological enhancement of memory or cognition in normal subjects
272

promise of combining brain stimulation and brain connectome
88
Hypothesisdriven methods to augment human cognition by optimizing cortical oscillations
103
How to Combine Brain Stimulation Rehabilitative Training for Functional Recovery?
124
A Framework for Combining rTMS with Behavioral Therapy
132
Noninvasive brain stimulation is not noninvasive
140
Biasing neural network dynamics using noninvasive brain stimulation
144
Direct electric stimulation to increase cerebrovascular function
149
challenges for brainstate dependent tDCS
154
Augmentation of cognitive brain functions with transcranial lasers
161
Thinking caps for everyone? The role of neuroenhancement by noninvasive brain stimulation in neuroscience and beyond
165
Neuroenhancement by noninvasive brain stimulation is not a net zerosum proposition
169
Design fabrication and packaging of an integrated wirelesslypowered optrode array for optogenetics application
172
Prospects for Optogenetic Augmentation of Brain Function
184
frequencydependency of the electrically evoked vestibuloocular reflex in humans
193
Sensitivity to microstimulation of somatosensory cortex distributed over multiple electrodes
205
evidence from normal and clinical populations
290
Changes in cerebellar activity and interhemispheric coherence accompany improved reading performance following Quadrato Motor Training
297
Increased intelligence is a myth so far
309
behavioural and neural evidence
312
Robust sequential working memory recall in heterogeneous cognitive networks
321
neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain
332
Attitudes toward pharmacological cognitive enhancementa review
342
A survey of substance use for cognitive enhancement by university students in the Netherlands
356
why and when healthy individuals should disclose their reliance on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers
367
Screening and personalizing nootropic drugs and cognitive modulator regimens in silico
372
Effects of nonpharmacological or pharmacological interventions on cognition and brain plasticity of aging individuals
378
Boosting visual cortex function and plasticity with acetylcholine to enhance visual perception
388
Back Cover
402
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