Radford's cyclopedia of construction: carpentry, building and architecture, based on the practical experience of a large staff of experts in actual construction work, Volume 7
William A. Radford, Alfred Sidney Johnson
The Radford architectural company, 1909 - Architecture
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abutments arch bridges arch-ring bars beam bridge beams blocks bond broken stone building built carried cast cent coarse cofferdam columns compression concrete arch concrete bridge concrete construction contractor cost crete cross-section cubic culvert depth diameter Don,t elastic elastic limit embedded engineer erected expansion joints face factor of safety falsework finished fireproof floor forced concrete forms foundation girders gravel height horizontal I-beams joints joists layer length less live load longitudinal masonry material ment mixed mixer mixture mortar moulds necessary piers piles pipe placed Plate Portland cement pounds per square practical proportions rail railroad railway rein reinforced concrete removed retaining walls rods roof sand sewers shear shearing stresses sheet shows side slabs spaced spandrel spans square foot square inch strength stresses surface tensile stresses tile tion track trestle vertical viaduct width wire wood wooden
Page 49 - Pats of neat cement about three inches in diameter, onehalf inch thick at the center, and tapering to a thin edge, shall be kept in moist air for a period of twenty-four hours. (a) A pat is then kept in air at normal temperature and observed at intervals for at least twenty-eight days.
Page 58 - Mortars composed of one part Portland cement and three parts fine aggregate by weight when made into briquettes shall show a tensile strength of at least 70 per cent of the strength of 1:3 mortar of the same consistency made with the same cement and standard Ottawa sand.
Page 49 - A third pat is exposed in any convenient way in an atmosphere of steam, above boiling water, in a loosely closed vessel for five hours.
Page 49 - One Part Cement, Three Parts Standard Ottawa Sand. 7 days (1 day in moist air, 6 days in water)... 200 Ibs. Constancy of Volume Pats of neat cement about three inches in diameter, one-half inch thick at the center, and tapering to a thin edge, shall be kept in moist air for a period of twenty-four hours.
Page 76 - Where large areas of concrete are exposed to atmospheric conditions, the changes of form, due to shrinkage (resulting from hardening) and to action of temperature, are such that large cracks will occur in the mass, unless precautions are taken to so distribute the stresses as either to prevent the cracks altogether or to render them very small. The size of the cracks will be directly proportional to the diameter of the reinforcing bars and inversely proportional to the percentage of reinforcement...
Page 60 - The maximum size of the coarse aggregate shall be such that it will not separate from the mortar in laying and will not prevent the concrete from fully surrounding the reinforcement or filling all parts of the forms.
Page 73 - In the calculation of web reinforcement when the concrete alone is insufficient to take the diagonal tension, the concrete may be counted upon as carrying one-third of the shear. The remainder is to be provided for by means of metal reinforcement consisting of bent bars or stirrups, but preferably both. The requisite amount of such reinforcement may be estimated on the assumption that the entire shear on a section, less the amount assumed to be carried by the concrete, is carried by the reinforcement...
Page 47 - The cement shall be stored in such a manner as to permit easy access for proper inspection and identification of each shipment.
Page 157 - The concrete shall be mixed in a water-tight box or platform placed close to the work, by first spreading evenly a layer of sand ; upon this shall be evenly spread the proportionate quantity of cement, and the two thoroughly mixed in a dry state.
Page 75 - The following recommendations are made for the relative working stresses in the concrete for the several types of columns: (a) Columns with longitudinal reinforcement to the extent of not less than 1 per cent and not more than 4 per cent, and with lateral ties of not less than J in.