Lithuania 700 Years
"Lithuania 700 Years" explores the nation's history from its undecided origins to its struggle for independence. The Lithuanians have been linked to various ancient peoples including the Romans, Greeks, Alans, Herulli, Thracians, Goths, and others. Numerous ethnogenetic theories have evolved, with some of the oldest theories based on comparisons of languages and religious customs, while others dealt with the subject in an more academic manner. The Liths, or Lithuanians, united in the 12th century under the rule of Mindaugas, who became king in 1251. Through marriage, one of the later Lithuanian rulers became the king of Poland (Ladislaus II) in 1386, uniting the countries. In 1410, the Poles and Lithuanians defeated the powerful Teutonic Knights at Tannenberg. From the 14th to the 16th century, Poland and Lithuania made up one of medieval Europe's largest empires, stretching from the Black Sea almost to Moscow. The two countries formed a confederation for almost 200 years, and in 1569 they formally united. Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland in 1772, 1792, and 1795. As a consequence, Lithuania came under Russian rule after the last partition. Russia attempted to immerse Lithuania in Russian culture and language, but anti-Russian sentiment continued to grow. Following World War I and the collapse of Russia, Lithuania declared independence (1918), under German protection. The republic was then annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. From June 1941 to 1944, it was occupied by German troops, with whom Lithuania served in World War II. Some 240,000 Jews were massacred in Lithuania during the Nazi years. In 1944, the Soviets again annexed Lithuania.
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THE ORIGINS OF THE LITHUANIAN NATION
uanians with the Herulli The Theory of Thracian and Phry
LITHUANIA TO WORLD War I by Juozas Jakštas
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