The Slave Power: Its Character, Career, and Probable Designs : Being an Attempt to Explain the Real Issues Involved in the American Contest

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Univ of South Carolina Press, 2003 - History - 410 pages
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The Slave Power, John E. Cairnes's seminal work on slavery, was widely acclaimed upon publication in 1862 as a brilliant attempt both to explain the essential cause of the American Civil War and to shape European policy concerning the struggle. It remains among the most important works on the political economy of Southern slavery. When Cairnes-one of the nineteenth century's preeminent classical liberal economists-characterized Southern slavery as inefficient and backward, his opinions carried enormous weight, earning him applause in the North and castigation in the slave- holding South. Casting the Civil War as a contest between an economically defunct and politically aggressive Southern slave power and a liberal, capitalist, free-wage-labor North, Cairnes offered an interpretation of the origins of the Civil War that has remained as compelling and controversial as it was when first published
 

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The Slave Power: Its Character, Career, and Probable Designs: Being an Attempt to Explain the Real Issues Involved in the American Contest (Southern Classics Series)

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Cairnes's 1962 dispassionate treatise examines slavery in terms of economics and attempts to present the monetary reasons for the Civil War. ... Read full review

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Contents

IntroductoryThe Case Started
1
Causes of War
2
The popular view
3
Its superficiality
5
Slavery the central problem of American history
6
The commericial theory
10
how to be estimated
15
Real cause of secession
17
Acquisition of the Louisiana Territory
210
Missouri claimed as a slave state
212
Motives to territorial aggrandisement
213
Importance of Missouri
214
Opposition of the North
215
The Seminole War
216
Designs upon Texas
218
The tactics of aggression
219

The origin of the war obscured by its proximate occasion
19
War the only arbitrament
23
The Unionist sentiment
25
The AntiSlavery sentiment
27
Rapid growth of the AntiSlavery sentiment
28
Present aspect of the question
29
The Economic Basis of Slavery
32
Different fortunes of slavery in the North and South
33
Theory of climate and race
35
The explanation of climate inadequate
37
Alleged indolence of the negro groundless
39
True solution of the problemEconomic
43
Merits and defects of slave labour
44
Merits and defects of free labour
47
Comparative efficiency of slave and free labour
48
Agricultural capabilities of North and South
50
Slave and free products
51
Further conditions essential to the success of slave labour
52
Fertility of the soil
53
Extent of territory
54
Exhausting effects of slave culture
56
In Brazil
59
In the West Indies
60
General conclusion
62
Internal Organization of Slave Societies
64
Economic success of slavery in what sense conceded
65
Structure of a slave society moulded by its economic conditions
69
Manufactures and commerce excluded
70
Agriculturethe sole career for slavery
73
Exigencies of slave agriculture
74
Magnitude of plantations
75
Unequal distribution of wealth
76
Waste lands in slave countries
77
Social consequences
81
The mean whites
82
Free industry in new countries compared with slave industry
84
Industrial development of slave states prematurely arrested
88
Net results of slave industry
94
Constitution of a slave society
95
Its oligarchical character
96
Baneful influence of the slave oligarchy falsely charged on democracy
98
Each principle to be tested by its proper fruits
100
The true delinquent
102
Character of the Slave Power
103
Tendencies of Slave Societies
104
Importance of the question
106
Presumption in favour of modern slavery derived from the experience of ancient
108
Difference of race and colour
110
Its effects
111
Growth of modern commerce
112
In enhancing the value of crude labour and thus augmenting the resources of slavery
114
In superseding the necessity of eduction and thus perpetuating servitude
116
Modern slavery extends its despotism to the mind
118
The slavetrade
119
In relation to the consuming countries
122
In relation to the breeding countries
124
Division of labour between the old and new states
126
Slave breeding in the Border states
127
Effects of the domestic slave trade on the census
130
Probable extent of the domestic slave trade
135
The slave trade securely founded in the principles of population
137
Analogy of emigrating countries
139
Internal Development of Slave Societies
140
They include no element of progress
143
Growth of regular industry a moral impossibility
147
Consequences of the absence of regular industry
148
Extreme sparseness of population
149
Incompatibility of this with civilized progress
152
Prospects of emancipation in the natural course of internal development
156
Modern precedents inapplicable
157
Economic causes not to be relied on
158
Political and social motives the real strength of American slavery
162
Further support to slavery in the ethics and theology of the South
165
Growth of the proslavery sentiment
166
Its absorbing strength
167
Its universality
169
Moral aspects of slavery
170
Hopelessness of the slaves position
174
Social cost of the system
176
Terrorism
177
External Policy of Slave Societies
179
Its aggressive character
180
The moral
184
Tendency of slave society to foster ambition
185
Narrow scope for its indulgence
187
The extensions of the slaveryits sole resource
188
Concentration of aim promoted by antagonism
189
Position of the South in the Union naturally inferior to that of the North
191
The threefifths vote
195
Superior capacity in the South for combined action
196
Democratic allianceits basis
198
Terms of the bargain
200
Twofold motive of Southern aggression
201
The political motive mainly operative
202
True source of this motive
203
Relation of the political motive to the federal position of the South
204
The Career of the Slave Power
206
Rise of the cotton trade
208
Early progress of the planters
209
Views of the annexationists
220
Texas annexed
221
Mexican wardivision of the spoil
222
State of parties in 1850
223
Designs upon Kansas
224
Obstacle presented by the Missouri Compromise
225
The Kansas and Nebraska Bill squater sovereignty
226
Kansas thrown open for settlement
227
Preparations of the Slave Power
228
Invasion of the territory
229
The Leavenworth Constitution
230
Atrocities of the Border Ruffians
231
Reactiondefeat of the Slave Power
233
Alarm in the North
235
Declaration of principles
236
First trial of strength
237
Southern policy of Thorough
238
Reopening of the African slavetrade
239
Agitation started
240
Importation of slaves actually commenced
244
Perversion of the Constitution
246
Claim of protection to slave property throughout the Union
247
A judicial decision necessary
248
Reconstruction of the Supreme Court
249
Dred Scott case
250
Effect of the decision
251
Further requirementa reliable government
253
Breach with the Democratic partySecession
254
Apology for the Southern aggression
255
Aggression of the Slave power in what sense defensive
256
The apology admits the charge
257
The apology admits the charge
258
Attempt of John Brown
259
Its place in current history
260
The Designs of the Slave Power
261
Essential character of Slave society unchanged by independence
263
Inherent vices of the Slave Power intensified by its new position
264
Limitation of slavery to its present area
267
Results of this plan
268
Territories opened alike to free and slave colonization
270
Probable effects
271
Equal partition of the Territories
273
Argument by which the scheme is defended
274
Paradox involved in this view
275
Effect of success on Southern ambition
276
Northern jealousy not a sufficient safeguard
277
Northern Jealousy
278
European intervention still less to be relied on
279
Modification of slavery involved in the success of the South
282
The antislave trade clause in the Montgomery Constitution
286
Antislavetrade legislation by a Slave Republic
288
Protests of the Southern Press
290
Intersts of the breeding states
292
Strength of public spirit in the South
293
Sacrifice of particular to general interests
294
Conclusion on the whole case
296
General Conclusions
297
Duty of EuropeNeutrality
299
Impolicy of intervention
302
Obligation to render moral support
303
Two modes of settlement equally to be deprecated
304
Reconstruction of the Union
308
Subjugation of the South how far justifiable
309
Subjugation of the South how far predictable
314
Reconstruction of the Union how far expedient
320
Necessity of a recourse to despotic expedients
321
Plan for dispensing with despotism by reforming Southern society
324
The condition of time ignored
326
Disturbing effects of immigration
327
Secession under conditions
329
Peculiar position of the Border states
330
Mr Lincolns proposal
332
Free cultivators in the Border states
334
Facilities for incorporation
336
The line of the Mississippi
337
Immediate and universal emancipation main difficulty of the problem
341
The West Indian experimentits lesson
342
Natural difficulties enhanced in the South
344
Impossibility of protecting the negro
346
their corrupting influence
347
Progressive emancipation Advantage of dealing with the evil in detail
348
Operation of natural causes in the more southern states
349
Prospects of the ultimate extinction of slavery
350
Appendices
351
Southern tactics in Europe
353
Slave labour
355
Failure of the South in manufacturers
356
The mean whites
358
The slave abistochacy in Brazil
376
Industrial revolution in Virginia
377
Competition of free and slave labour in the South
378
Popular eduction in Virginia
379
Mr Stirlings argument for the extinction of slavery through economic causes
380
Economic strength of slavery
381
Spirit of the slave laws
382
Recent importation of African slaves into the South
386
The Philosophy of Secession
390
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About the author (2003)

John E. Cairnes (1823-1875) held the Whately professorship of political economy at the University of Dublin before being named professor of political economy and jurisprudence at Queen's College in Galway in 1859. In 1866 Cairnes became professor of political economy at University College, London.

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