This is a detailed fieldwork-based study of Salar, a mixed, unwritten language of Turkic origin spoken in Northwestern China. Due to its geographic isolation it has become an important object of research for language contact and creolization, since both its dialects have diverged sharply under the influence of Sino-Tibetan and other Turkic languages, incorporating many Chinese and Tibetan elements. The work emphasizes diachrony, and contains an overview of the origins and history of the Salars and their language. The phonemic inventory, synchronic and diachronic phonology, syllable structure, and areal features (obstruent voicing and consonantal preaspiration) are presented and analyzed.
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affricates Amdo Tibetan Arabic archaisms areal aspiration Azeri Bashkir C.Tkc Chag Chinese loans coda cognate Common Turkic consonant consonantal corresponds to Oghuz deletion devoicing diachronic dialects diphthongs distinction Eastern Turkic epenthesis example forms fricative front rounded vowels front vowels Gaizi Gandu Gedem guages historical Hualong initial obstruents intervocalic Jahriyya Kalpin Kash Kazakh Khafiyya Khakas Kipchak lbTb lexemes lexical long vowels modern Salar Modern Uyghur Mongolian Mongolic Monguor Munda Muslim nasal non-initial Northwest Chinese Northwestern Chinese NWCq NWCxn obstruents occurs Oghuz languages Old Turkic ONWC palatal Persian phonemic phonological Poppe position Potanin's preaspiration QTnghai retroflex Salar language Sang Yugur Sari'g Yugur Siberian Turkic Southeastern Turkic speakers spirantization stop stress suffix syllable syllable-initially Tatar Tenishev Tksh Turkic languages Turkish Turkmen Tuva uvular Uyghur velar verb voiced voiceless vowel length Western Salar word-final Xinjiang Xunhua