The Art of the Scythians: The Interpenetration of Cultures at the Edge of the Hellenic World
This volume considers the art of the Scythians of the northern littoral of the Black Sea, as that art was expressed in gold, silver, bronze, and bone. Appearing by the seventh century B.C. at the edge of an expanding Hellenic world, the history and art of the Scythians must be considered within a context that recognizes the sources of Scythian culture in the Eurasian Steppe as well as the historical contingency of West Asia and the Greek colonies. By approaching the understanding of artistic traditions in terms of an evolving process, rooted in an archaic steppe culture but ultimately shaped by the confrontation of Near Eastern, Hellenic and Hellenistic tastes, this discussion goes beyond the traditional location of Scythian art as a subset of Greek goldwork. Particular consideration is given to the gradual transformation of object types and styles, from their reflection of archaic zoomorphic representations in carved bone, wood and bronze, to traditions expressive of Hellenized tastes and sensibilities, in gold and silver. By examining in detail individual objects, as well as classes of objects, this volume articulates a specifically Scythian stylistic and iconographic tradition, and a specifically Scythian contribution to the working of precious metals, related to but ultimately distinguishable from the goldworking traditions of Achaemenid Iran, late Classical Greece, and the larger Hellenistic world. This volume offers substantial bibliography relating to the extensive research on Scythian art, archaeology, and history, published in the Russian and Ukrainian languages over the last 150 years.
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An Outline of Scythian History
Imagery and Meaning in Scythian Art
Cultural Authority in the Art of the Scythians
The Art of the Scythians ObjectTypes and Objects
Achaemenid amphora ancient animals appear archaeology archaic Asia band beak-heads birds Black Sea Bolshaya Bliznitsa bracelets bronze caprids century B.C. Gold century B.C. Hermitage Chertomlyk amphora Clothing plaque collar culture diadem disk Dnepr River early nomadic early Scythian earrings elements enamel female fifth century figures forest-steppe Fourth century B.C. frieze gorytus granulation Greek griffin handle hanging headdress Hellenized Herodotus Hoffman and Davidson horses Ibid images indicate Kakhovka Reservoir Karagodeuashkh Kelermes Kiev Kul Oba kurgan late fourth century lion heads lower Melitopol mirror Moscow motifs Nauka necklace notched wire objects Olbia ornamented palmette Panticapaeum pattern pendants Petersburg poletop Rayevskiy recumbent deer referred region representations Reproduced rhyta rhyton Sauromatians scabbard Scythian Art Scythian burials Scytho-Siberian Seven Brothers shape sixth century B.C. Solokha Splendors style Taman Peninsula tendril terminals Tolstaya Mogila pectoral torque treatment twisted rope Ukrainian Steppe vessel Williams and Ogden winged Ziwiyeh