The Emergence of the Middle Class: Social Experience in the American City, 1760-1900
Of all the terms with which Americans define themselves as members of society, few are as elusive as "middle class." This book traces the emergence of a recognizable and self-aware "middle class" between the era of the American Revolution and the end of the nineteenth century. The author focuses on the development of the middle class in larger American cities, particularly Philadelphia and New York. He examines the middle class in all its complexity, and in its day-to-day existence--at work, in the home, and in the shops, markets, theaters, and other institutions of the big city. The book places the new language of class---in particular the new term "middle class"--in the context of the concrete, interwoven experiences of specific anonymous Americans who were neither manual workers nor members of urban upper classes.
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The elusive middle class
Middling sorts in the eighteenthcentury city
nonmanual work in Jacksonian
work wellbeing and social
voluntary associations and
Experience and consciousness in the antebellum city
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adelphia advertisement alleys antebellum appear artisans associations Boston census Church city directory city's clerical clerks Club Company contemporary culture described discussion distinct domestic downtown early economic eighteenth century elite emerging ethnic example factory Figure Freemasonry Greek Revival grid-unit Harper's historians Historical Society History homes households houses Hunt's Ibid identified identities incomes increasingly industrial institutions Jacksonian era Journal labor large numbers larger less listed lived lodges Lydia Maria Child male manual workers manufacturers master mechanics merchants Metropolis middle class neighborhoods New-York New-York Historical Society nineteenth nineteenth-century nonmanual businessmen nonmanual sector noted organizations parlor patterns Pennsylvania Philadelphia Philadelphia Cricket Club political population Presbyterian professionals residents Revolution salary Sean Wilentz shops significant skilled sort specific Street Streetcar Suburbs suburbs suggest tailor Temperance temperance movement tisans trades upper class urban wages wards wealth West Philadelphia white-collar Wilentz William women working-class workshops York City young