Water-Soluble Polymers for Petroleum Recovery
We both found ourselves working on water-soluble polymers for oil recovery in the early 1980' s. Our previ ous backgrounds i nvo 1 ved the synthesi sand characteri zati on of hydrocarbon polymers for everythi ng from elastomers to plastics. As such, we were largely unprepared for the special difficulties associated with water soluble polymers in genera 1, and thei ruse in enhanced oi 1 recovery (EOR) , in parti cul ar. Oil patch applications have a jargon and technical heritage quite apart from that usually experienced by traditional polymer scientists. At that time, no books were available to help us "get up to speed" in the polymers for oil recovery field. Since then, there have been a number of symposia on this topic, but still few books, especially from the polymer (rather than the field-applications) perspective. Synthetic water soluble/swellable polymers have commercial importance in such application as water treatment, cosmetics, and foods. Yet, these polymers have not received the scientific/technological attention they deserve. The application of water soluble polymers to oil recovery has, in fact, highlighted the need for new water based materials, and a fundamental understanding of their structure and use. Interest has been spurred not only for the potenti a 1 economi c credi ts from enhanced oi 1 recovery and an augmented polymers business, but also by the challenge of designing water soluble polymers for harsh environments.
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THE ROLE OF POLYMERS IN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
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VISCOSITY DEVELOPMENT FILTERABILITY AND DEGRADATION
THEORY POLYMERS AND CROSSLINKER SYSTEMS
HYDROPHOBICALLY ASSOCIATING POLYMERS
STRUCTURALLY TAILORED MACROMOLECULES FOR MOBILITY CONTROL IN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
BEHAVIOR OF POLYAMPHOLYTES IN AQUEOUS SALT SOLUTION
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acid acrylamide acrylate ADASAM adsorbed layer adsorption ammonium analysis anionic apparent viscosity applications aqueous solution behavior biopolymer brine capillary carboxylate chain Chem chemical coefficient coil core crossflow crosslinking decrease degradation detector determined dilute dispersion effects enhanced oil recovery EOR polymers equation experimental filter flow rate fluid gel strength gelation graft copolymers groups HPAM hydrodynamic hydrolysis hydrolyzed hydrophobic imide increase injection interactions intramolecular intrinsic viscosity ionic light scattering lignin macromolecules mechanism microgel mobility mole molecular weight monomer NaCl observed PAAM parameters particles permeability polyacrylamide polyelectrolyte polymer concentration polymer flooding polymer molecules polymer solution polymerization polysaccharide porous media precipitation produced properties ratio reaction reduced reservoir rheological salinity sample shear rate shown in Figure slug sodium soluble solution viscosity solvent stability sulfonate surfactant Table temperature terpolymers tests values velocity viscometer viscosity measurements water-soluble polymers welan xanthan
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