This widely used and highly praised textbook has been extensively revised to reflect the most exciting research across the entire range of neuroscience. A new feature is an introductory discussion of the mechanisms of gene regulation, while the superfamily of molecules responsible for membrane signaling is given new emphasis as a unifying theme throughout molecular and cellular neurobiology. The roles of these molecules in impulse conduction and synaptic transmission are fully explained, and illustrated by computer models. For the first time in a neurobiology text, these mechanisms can be explored by using a state-of-the-art interactive computer program provided with an accompanying tutorial handbook. In the sections dealing with neural systems, the comparative approach continues to be used to illustrate general principles. Students learn about the progress being made toward a molecular basis for sensory perception and new methods for revealing the neural activity underlying sensory and motor functions are described. There is an emphasis on the plasticity of both sensory and the motor circuits in mediating functions that reflect the effects of activity or recovery from injury. Central systems continue to be featured as the culmination of neural evolution. These include the systems vital for all animals, such as sleeping, feeding and reproduction, as well as the systems for language, emotion and higher cognitive functions that reach their peak in humans. There is special emphasis on recent work on memory, contrasting the mechanisms for short-term working memory and long-term memory and summarizing the present understanding of the mechanisms of long-term potential. The twin themes of organizational levels and comparative systems help bring together the vast range of studies and provides a conceptual framework that unifies the field of neurobiology. As in previous editions, the text continues to draw on the advantages of having a single author. In addition, leaders in a number of specialties have assisted the author, so that the text represents the most up-to-date views of current research on the nervous system.
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The Cellular Basis
A Comparative Overview
A Comparative Overview
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action potential activity Adapted animal auditory axon behavior brain brainstem brane Ca2+ cell body cellular centers cerebellum chemical chemical synapses circuits complex connections cortex cortical dendrites depolarization diagram discussed in Chap dorsal effects electrical electrical synapses example excitatory fibers frequency functions ganglia ganglion cells gland granule hair cells hormone human hypothalamus impulse indicated inhibition inhibitory innervation input insects interneurons intracellular invertebrates involved ions lobe male mammals mechanisms mediate membrane potential ment metabolism molecular molecules motoneurons motor movements muscle nerve cells neural neurons nucleus olfactory bulb organs output pathways pattern peptides postsynaptic presynaptic properties protein receptor cell receptor potential recordings reflex regions relation release response rhythms sensory sensory receptors showing shown in Fig signals somatosensory specific spinal cord statocyst stimulation structure studies substances synaptic terminals thalamus tion tract transmitter types vertebrates vesicles vestibular visual