Origins of the Colonnaded Streets in the Cities of the Roman East
The colonnaded axes define the visitor's experience of many of the great cities of the Roman East. How did this extraordinarily bold tool of urban planning evolve? The street, instead of remaining a mundane passage, a convenient means of passing from one place to another, was in the course of little more than a century transformed in the Eastern provinces into a monumental landscape which could in one sweeping vision encompass the entire city. The colonnaded axes became the touchstone by which cities competed for status in the Eastern Empire. Though adopted as a sign of cities' prosperity under the Pax Romana, they were not particularly 'Roman' in their origin. Rather, they reflected the inventiveness, fertility of ideas and the dynamic role of civic patronage in the Eastern provinces in the first two centuries under Rome. This study will concentrate on the convergence of ideas behind these great avenues, examining over fifty sites in an attempt to work out the sequence in which ideas developed across a variety of regions-from North Africa around to Asia Minor. It will look at the phenomenon in the context of the consolidation of Roman rule.
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agora Alexandria alignment ancient Antinoopolis Antioch Antiquities Apamea arch archaeological archéologiques architectural Asia Minor Augustan Augustus axes axial Balty Bostra building Campus Martius capital central century BC Chapter city’s colonnaded axis colonnaded street columns complex cross-city cult centre cultural Damascus decumanus decumanus maximus Dentzer Dentzer-Feydy early East east–west Eastern cities Eastern provinces edited Egypt emperor Empire enclosure evidence example Excavations façade Forum Freyberger funding gate Gawlikowski Greek grid plan Hadrian Hellenistic Herod ideas imperial cult inscriptions Jerash Josephus Latakia late later layout main street major metres monumental Nabataean north–south axis northern notes ºil original Palmyra period Petra portico possible programme Ptolemaic remains roadway role Roman Rome Rome’s route second century Seleucid Septimius Severus Severan side southern space stoa street colonnading structure style surviving Syria Syrie temenos Temple theatre third century thoroughfare town planning tradition Trajan urban western