Bent Timber Ships and Universal Wood Bending Machinery: Two Prize Medals Awarded at the International Exhibition, Philadelphia, 1876

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publisher not identified, 1876 - Shipbuilding - 44 pages
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Page 3 - ... the stem, and none other. Thus, there is cellular and vascular tissue inclosed on each side by a cuticle. The surface is commonly marked by a number of ridges, which are called veins, and which consist of woody tissue, spiral vessels and cellular tissue, and they are retained in their position and the intervening spaces filled up by cellular tissue. The tissues of the veins are brought in close proximity in the petiole (which is a small stem...
Page 3 - The tissues of the veins are brought in closer proximity in the petiole, which is a small stem, and having passed through it into the stem, one part enters the bark, whilst the other traverses the wood, and penetrates to the medullary sheath at the centre of the stem. Thus every leaf is in direct communication with the stem, and not only so but it is a prolongation of the very pith, spinal vessels, and wood of the stem. The similarity between the leaf and the stem may be carried yet further, for...
Page 3 - Tlie roots of trees are composed of nearly tho same tissues with the stem, viz. : woody fibre, ducts, and cellular tissue. The chief functions of the roots are to sustain the tree, and to absorb from the soil and supply to its stem all the fluids and substances in solution which enter its circulating systems. Effete and deleterious substances are also emitted by the roots. Although the sap...
Page 2 - ... deposition of woody fibre, and thus the presence of bark is necessary to the growth of the tree. It is also essential to the life of the tree, from its connection with the cellular system, by means of the medullary rays, and so with the undeveloped leaf-buds. The bark contains a large number of air-vessels, and not only conveys refuse matter from the leaves to the soil, but is also a depository of elaborated secretions. This is seen in the oak bark yielding tannin, the cinchona bark producing...
Page 1 - ... laws of life of that vegetable structure which is to compose the constructed ship. It seems to be forgotten that trees can be planted, cultivated, influenced in growth, durability, and preservation by careful attention to natural causes. On examining a section of the stem of an oak or other tree we observe the following parts : First, the pith, or its remains in the centre ; secondly, the bark on the outside ; thirdly, a mass of wood between the two, apparently divided up into portions by the...
Page 9 - Tis education forms the common mind; As the twig is bent the tree's inclined. LESSON 48. Study in advance paragraphs 39, 40 and 41. Write the body of a letter, as per copy below. Begin at 10, and make double space between the lines. After writing it once, space twice as much as between lines and repeat in the same form until a page is written. One full page is to be...
Page 3 - The 7?/ is the type of construction of the entire tree, representing, as it does, in its composition, every structure which enters into the stem, and none other. Thus there is cellular and vascular tissue enclosed on each side by a cuticle. The surface is commonly marked by a number of ridges, which are called veins, and which consist of woody tissue, spiral vessels, and cellular tissue, and they are retained in their position and the intervening spaces filled up by cellular tissue. The tissues...
Page 3 - ... functions of the roots are to sustain the tree, and to absorb from the soil and supply to its stem all the fluids and substances in solution which enter its circulating systems. Effete and deleterious substances are also emitted by the roots. Although the sap ascends through the capillaries of the wood from the roots, it flows still more copiously between the wood and the bark. If the bark be stripped from a tree, the circulation of the sap is greatly diminished, soon ceases, and the tree will...
Page 2 - The more apparent use of the bark is to give protection to the wood ; but if the bark did not exist, there would be no cambium, and without this there could not be any deposition of woody fibre, and thus the presence of bark is necessary to the growth of the tree. It is also essential to the life of the tree, from its connection with the cellular system, by means of the medullary rays, and...
Page 3 - ... small stem, and having passed through it into the stem, one part enters the bark, whilst the other traverses the wood, and penetrates to the medullary sheath at the centre of the stem. Thus every leaf is in direct communication with the stem, and not only so but it is a prolongation of the very pith, spinal vessels, and wood of the stem. The similarity between the leaf and the stem may be carried yet further, for not only do the same structures enter into the composition of both, but in both...

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