## Kitāb Fī Al-ālāt Al-falakīyahThis volume contains the critical edition with English translation of a richly-illustrated Arabic treatise on the construction of over one hundred various astronomical instruments, many of which are otherwise unknown to specialists. It was composed by Najm al-D n al-Misr , a rather shadowy figure, in Cairo ca. 1330. The edition is accompanied by a detailed technical and historical commentary, which is framed as a self-standing essay on Islamic mathematical instrumentation. While this essay/commentary is mainly based on Najm al-D n's treatise, it also benefits from the consultation of a large number of previously unstudied manuscripts, and includes a discussion of all relevant sources from the period 800 1500. |

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### Contents

Introduction | 3 |

Part Commentary | 49 |

the altitude circles | 55 |

Horary Quadrants and Portable Dials | 113 |

Fixed Sundials | 181 |

Trigonometric Instruments | 209 |

Miscellaneous Instruments | 221 |

Translation of Najm alDJn alMisris Treatise on Instruments | 229 |

the skiff astrolabic quadrant | 275 |

the bull astrolabic quadrant | 276 |

the azimuthal astrolabic quadrant | 277 |

trolabic quadrant | 278 |

the diurnal musatira | 279 |

the nocturnal musatira | 280 |

the musattar quadrant | 282 |

the quadrant with harp markings | 283 |

the spiral astrolabe | 243 |

the rumTastrolabe called the shajjariyya | 244 |

the universal astrolabe invented in Mecca | 247 |

the crab astrolabe which is named after the construction of its rete | 248 |

the northern counterbalancing astrolabe | 249 |

the myrtle astrolabe which is also the plate of the drum one each of them having its own rete | 250 |

the complete southnorth astrolabe without having to be concerned with looking at the rete | 251 |

the anemone astrolabe and its rete | 252 |

the solid astrolabe | 253 |

the jar astrolabe | 254 |

the tortoise astrolabe | 255 |

the buffalo astrolabe | 256 |

the cup astrolabe | 257 |

the spherical astrolabe | 259 |

the frog astrolabe invented by the author | 260 |

the zarqdlliyya | 262 |

the azimuth circle | 263 |

the southern counterbalancing astrolabe | 264 |

the scorpion astrolabe related to the construction of its rete | 265 |

the diverging mutadakhil mutakhdlif astrolabe | 266 |

the fitting mutadakhil mutawafiq astrolabe | 267 |

the ruler astrolabe | 268 |

the shakkaziyya | 269 |

the shakkaziyya quadrant | 271 |

the spiral astrolabic quadrant | 272 |

the universal astrolabic quadrant | 273 |

the counterbalancing astrolabic quadrant | 274 |

the universal horary quadrant | 284 |

the sine quadrant | 285 |

the instrument with the two branches | 286 |

the sundial based on the midday shadow | 287 |

the seasonal hours based on midday shadows by another method | 291 |

the conical sundial and the universal locusts leg | 292 |

the astrolabic quadrant for latitude 48 which is the end of the inhabited countries | 293 |

an horary quadrant whose sixth hourline has the same width as its first one each of them having a uniform width | 295 |

the seasonal hours of an horary quadrant for a specific altitude | 296 |

the seasonal hours of an horary quadrant called hours of the harp junk | 297 |

the hours of an horary quadrant called hours with the branches | 298 |

the hours called hours with the bowed scale | 299 |

the universal horary quadrant which works approximately for all inhabited latitudes that is from zero to 48 | 300 |

the hours with the square angle alzdwiya | 301 |

hour markings on the flat locusts leg or on the circular conical dial its gnomon being fixed | 302 |

the arcs of the asr on the sine quadrants | 304 |

the linear astrolabe | 305 |

the horizontal sundial with the daycircles | 306 |

the instrument displaying the timearc as a function of | 312 |

the base of the ventilator | 318 |

the locusts leg as a function of the meridian altitude for | 324 |

the hours of the basin which does not empty | 331 |

the vertical sundial for latitude 36 parallel to the eastwest | 351 |

B Najm alDïns Proportion Tables | 357 |

Bibliography | 375 |

395 | |

### Common terms and phrases

90 equal al-BTrunl al-Marrakushl alidade altitude circles Arabic Aries asr curve astrolabic plate astrolabic quadrant astronomy auxiliary azimuth azimuth circles Cancer Capricorn centre chapters circle and divide circular arc coordinates corresponding day-circles day-line Diagram dial diameter distance ecliptic belt equal hours equator four quadrants gnomon length horary quadrant horizon horizontal sundial hour-angle hour-lines Ibn al-Shatir Ibn al-Zarqalluh Ibrahim ibn Sinan illustration inclined sundial instrument intersection Islamic Istanbul King latitude 36 latitude zero locust's leg Mamluk manuscript mentioned meridian altitude meridian line midday shadow musatira Najm al-DTn Northern projection Open the compass outer scale perpendicular Place one leg Place the ruler pole prime vertical qibla radii radius repr rete right ascension seasonal hours Sezgin shakkaziyya side sine quadrant solstices southern stars stereographic projection straight line sundial plate thread three day-circles time-arc Trace a circle treatise vertical shadow vertical sundial zarqalliyya zodiacal signs