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TOWARD A DEFINITION OF THE TERM AYAN
TRANSFORMATION OF OTTOMAN
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18th century acquired administrative agricultural akces Albert Hourani Aleppo Anatolia Ankara askeri class authority ayan families ayanship Barkan became cash waqf Celali central government changes ciftlik-formation ciftliks confiscated decentralization definition demands derebey dirlik economic activities Edirne emerged example factors fiscal functions governors Grand Vezir Halil Inalcik Ibid idem iltizam system increasing institution of ayanlik interest investment Istanbul janissaries kadi Kemal Karpat Kunt l6th land landholders legitimacy lesser ayan malikane McGowan ment Meriwether Metin Kunt Middle East military mukataa multezims Nagata nature nisba Notable Families Osmanli Ottoman Empire Ottoman history Ottoman society Ottoman system Ozkaya peasants period position powerful ayan Price Revolution production relations provincial officials reaya region revenues role rural Sadat scholars second half Selim III Sened-i Ittifak social sources struggle sultan surplus tax collection tax farming Tereke term ayan thesis timar system tion traditional treasury ulema Ulucay urban usury villages wealth Yucel