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abutments adopted arched bridge asphalte ballast bars bottom flange bracing breaking strain brickwork Bridge Example caissoon carried cast iron catenary cement centre chains cofferdam compression concrete considerable constructed corrugated cost cross girders curved cylinders dead load deep depth derrick described diagonals diameter elasticity engineers engraving erection excavated expense feet guy ropes heavy holes iron girders ironwork kind laid lattice girders length lifted main girders manufacture masonry material methods moving load necessary obtained ordinary pieces piers pig iron placed plate girders platform Portland cement pumps purlines rafters rails railway bridges renders ribs river bed riveted roadway rolled roof ropes screw piles shape shown in Fig small box girders sometimes span square foot square inch steel stone stratum strength structure struts superstructure surface suspension bridges thick timber top flange traffic trellis trussed vertical weight width wrought iron zinc
Page 306 - CUBIC MEASURE 1728 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot 27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard...
Page 292 - The scale is sometimes got rid of by " pickling," the iron being first dipped in dilute acid to remove the scale, and then washed in pure water. "If the trouble and expense were not a bar to its general adoption, this is the proper process for preparing wrought iron for paint, and it is exacted occasionally in very strict specifications. " But somewhat the same results may be obtained by allowing the ironwork to rust, and then scraping the scale off preparatory to painting. If some rust remains upon...
Page 161 - Ocean, the first thing which strikes us is, that, the north-east and south-east monsoons, which are found the one on the north and the other on...
Page 7 - The deflection will vary from '3 to '5 inch. ' ' There is no difficulty in getting such iron, and higher qualities can be given if necessary, breaking strains of 30 to 35 cwt. being obtainable with judicious mixtures of the best kinds of iron ; and in testing such iron it will generally be found that some of the bars will endure as much as 38 cwt.
Page 94 - The road is to have a fall from the middle to the sides of about 1 ft. in 60, and ditches are to be dug on the field-side of the fences to a depth of a few inches below the level of the road." This system, which at one time threatened to supersede every other, is calculated to form a hard and impermeable crust on the surface, thus protecting the soft earth...
Page 306 - Measure) 4 gills = 1 pint 2 pints = 1 quart 2 quarts = 1 pottle 2 pottles = 1 gallon 4 quarts = 1 gallon 2 gallons = 1 peck 4 pecks = 1 bushel 8 bushels = 1 quarter...
Page 201 - But if the abutments already exist or if for other reasons they have to be built, the curved roof, under these circumstances, in many cases, may be found cheaper and more suitable. Flat roofs are very common, especially in hot climates. The covering of these roofs rests upon beams placed in a horizontal position, or one that is nearly so. The slope given them is generally...
Page 213 - If the iron be not suff1ciently tough and ductile it will, when corrugated, crack; and though the openings may be so small as to escape cursory examination, they will, when exposed to the weather, rapidly become rusty, and render the whole sheet worthless. The...
Page 94 - ... the large stones were removed. The broken metal is then to be carefully spread over it ; and as this operation is of great importance to the future quality of the road, the metal is not to be laid on in shovelfuls to the requisite depth, but to be scattered in shovelful after shovelful, till a depth of from 6 to 10 inches, according to the quality of the road, has been obtained.
Page 195 - Fig. 6685, but with longer rafters doubly trussed. The three forms just described are marked by the absence of vertical members, and for this reason the system is not a convenient one for hipped roofs, and for those roofs also where a longitudinal bracing between the principals is required in a vertical plane.